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Most computer programs that solve real-world problems are much larger than the programs in the first few chapters. Experience has shown that the best way to develop and maintain a large program is to construct it from smaller pieces or program units each, of which is more manageable than the original program. Generally, user-defined program units are called subprograms. This technique is called divide-and-conquer. This chapter deals with the method of declaration of the user-defined function and its use in C++. Besides, this chapter also covers pointer data type which is one of the strength of the C++ language.

Function and parameter declarations

In C++ all subprograms are referred to as functions . A function allows you to treat a related group of C++ statements as a single unit. The programmer can write functions to define specific tasks that could be used at many points in a program.

Functions allow the programmer to modulize a program. All variables declared in function definitions are local variables – they are known only in the function in which they are defined. Most functions have a list of parameters that provide the means for communicating information between functions.

There are several motivations for dividing a program into functions. The divide-and-conquer approach makes program development more manageable. Another motivation is software reusability – using existing functions as building blocks to create new programs. Software reusability is a major factor in object-oriented programming. With good function naming and definition, programs can be created from standardized functions that accomplish specific tasks. A third motivation is to avoid repeating code in a program. Packing code as a function allows the code to be executed from several location in a program simply by calling the function.

Defining a function

The lines that compose a function within a C++ program are called a function definition. The syntax for defining a function is

data_type name_of_function (parameters){



A function definition consists of four parts:

- A reserved word indicating the return data type of the function’s return value.

- The function name

- Any parameters required by the function, contained within parentheses.

- The function’s statements enclosed in curly braces { }.

Example: The following function determines the largest integer among three parameters passed to it.

int maximum( int x, int y, int z )


int max = x;

if ( y>max )

max = y;

if ( z>max )

max = z;

return max;


You designate a data type for function since it is common to return a value from a function after it executes.

General format of a function is described below.

General format of a function

Variable names that will be used in the function header line are called formal parameters.

How to call functions

To execute a function, you must invoke, or call, it from the main () function.

The values or variables that you place within the parentheses of a function call statement are called arguments or actual parameters.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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