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We shall return to the traditional history of the American colonies, the problems in the "Old Northwest", the French and Indians War and finally the American Revolution at a later time, but feeling that school texts have overlooked much material about the southern Indians and their relationships with the whites and imported Africans, we shall devote a few additional paragraphs to these subjects. At times the Indians cooperated with the British, as when Creeks, Yamacraws and Cherokees helped Oglethorpe in battles with Spanish troops, who attacked St. Simons Island in 1742. Natives crewed the scout boats used for communications along the chain of sea island forts and they raided Florida, killing or capturing unwary Spaniards, Yamasees and Negroes. At other times the Indians fought the colonists, but in between there was considerable merging of red, white and black races.

In this 18th century Creeks constituted one of the largest racially heterogeneous tribes. Other more or less "pure-bred" tribes, such as the Catawbas, had existed, but now there were only a few hundred of them left and the Catawba language had been lost. Various Catawbas conversed in assorted tongues belonging to several different language families. The first mention of the term "Seminole" was in 1771 and it was probably taken from the Spanish cimarron (wild) which became simanoli in Chickasaw. Lower and then Upper Creeks drifting into Florida formed the nucleus of the Seminole "nation", with a few remnants from earlier days - Calusas and Tequestas. (See also page 1013). There never was a unified Seminole nation and those Indians then, as today, did not necessarily understand one another. The Lumbees of southeastern North Carolina offer an even more bizarre grouping. Numbering still some 40,000 today, they constitute one of the largest tribes in the United States, but actually they are an aggregation of diverse remnant tribes and also blacks and whites, having geography more than anything else in common. There is no Lumbee language.

It is thus apparent that the mixtures that developed among the southern Indians was not entirely one of intermingled tribes, as the whites mixed with the natives on a much grander scale than some care to admit. A considerable numb er of colonists married Indians and reared families and then, of course, the packhorsemen and factors, living for extended periods among the Indians, formed unions with native women. Many of the tribes had cultures which condoned premarital sex for the young Indian girls. Such a large mestizo population emerged that great numbers of 18th century "Indian" chiefs had such names as McDonald, Perryman, Colbert, Brown, etc. It wasn't long before the natives and the whites and mestizos living among them began to insist that they owned their lands outright and that in every respect they inhabited a sovereign, independent nation. Attempts were made to reestablish centralized states, yet no chief spoke for a unified Cherokee or Creek nation and colonists repeatedly took advantage of this to obtain lands. Many of the tribes were ethnic melting pots. The terms Creek and Muskhogee did not even appear until this century. Creek or Muskhogee, the primary language, in all probability was not a first language or perhaps even understood by a majority of the Creeks. Lower Creeks, a major part of the confederation, themselves composed of different ethnic groups, for the most part spoke Hitchiti, which was unintelligible to those speaking Creek proper.

Questions & Answers

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s. Reply
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s.
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Abhijith Reply
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
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SUYASH
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s. Reply
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Ebrahim
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Ebrahim
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s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Uday
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what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
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I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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