<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

We shall return to the traditional history of the American colonies, the problems in the "Old Northwest", the French and Indians War and finally the American Revolution at a later time, but feeling that school texts have overlooked much material about the southern Indians and their relationships with the whites and imported Africans, we shall devote a few additional paragraphs to these subjects. At times the Indians cooperated with the British, as when Creeks, Yamacraws and Cherokees helped Oglethorpe in battles with Spanish troops, who attacked St. Simons Island in 1742. Natives crewed the scout boats used for communications along the chain of sea island forts and they raided Florida, killing or capturing unwary Spaniards, Yamasees and Negroes. At other times the Indians fought the colonists, but in between there was considerable merging of red, white and black races.

In this 18th century Creeks constituted one of the largest racially heterogeneous tribes. Other more or less "pure-bred" tribes, such as the Catawbas, had existed, but now there were only a few hundred of them left and the Catawba language had been lost. Various Catawbas conversed in assorted tongues belonging to several different language families. The first mention of the term "Seminole" was in 1771 and it was probably taken from the Spanish cimarron (wild) which became simanoli in Chickasaw. Lower and then Upper Creeks drifting into Florida formed the nucleus of the Seminole "nation", with a few remnants from earlier days - Calusas and Tequestas. (See also page 1013). There never was a unified Seminole nation and those Indians then, as today, did not necessarily understand one another. The Lumbees of southeastern North Carolina offer an even more bizarre grouping. Numbering still some 40,000 today, they constitute one of the largest tribes in the United States, but actually they are an aggregation of diverse remnant tribes and also blacks and whites, having geography more than anything else in common. There is no Lumbee language.

It is thus apparent that the mixtures that developed among the southern Indians was not entirely one of intermingled tribes, as the whites mixed with the natives on a much grander scale than some care to admit. A considerable numb er of colonists married Indians and reared families and then, of course, the packhorsemen and factors, living for extended periods among the Indians, formed unions with native women. Many of the tribes had cultures which condoned premarital sex for the young Indian girls. Such a large mestizo population emerged that great numbers of 18th century "Indian" chiefs had such names as McDonald, Perryman, Colbert, Brown, etc. It wasn't long before the natives and the whites and mestizos living among them began to insist that they owned their lands outright and that in every respect they inhabited a sovereign, independent nation. Attempts were made to reestablish centralized states, yet no chief spoke for a unified Cherokee or Creek nation and colonists repeatedly took advantage of this to obtain lands. Many of the tribes were ethnic melting pots. The terms Creek and Muskhogee did not even appear until this century. Creek or Muskhogee, the primary language, in all probability was not a first language or perhaps even understood by a majority of the Creeks. Lower Creeks, a major part of the confederation, themselves composed of different ethnic groups, for the most part spoke Hitchiti, which was unintelligible to those speaking Creek proper.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region)' conversation and receive update notifications?