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America

Back to America: A.D. 1601 to 1700

North america

Canada and the far north

When Vitus Bering found the strait which bears his name he also explored the Aleutian chain of islands and the Alaska shores, living on sea otters and starting a new fur trade. By 1745 ruthless Russian hunters were established on Attu Island, where they killed all male Aleuts and took their women. Later, however, they found that they had to keep Aleut males to help them hunt the otters in their ulluxtadags (similar to Eskimo kayaks) with harpoons and they then merged and lived together with the Aleuts. In 1784 Grigorii Shelekhov established a settlement on Kodiak Island and founded what became the Russian-American Company. They obtained otter and seal pelts, using 7,200 Aleuts to hunt full-time and taking 300 others as hostages to ensure work from the first group. This broke up the Aleut families and then disease appeared, so that in the two generations at the end of the century, the Aleut population fell by nearly two-thirds. (Ref. 234 , 199 ) Shelekhov was followed by Alexander Baranov, who greeted British ships and found English, American and even a few Spanish skippers had been trading for furs some 1,100 miles south. In 1799 he sailed along the shore with 450 two-man kayaks to establish a colony on Baranov Island, just 6 miles above a Tlingits Indian stronghold at what is now Sitka, Alaska. Those Tlingits had inhabited the lower coastal area of the Alaskan panhandle for a long period and had a high culture, living in gabled lodges housing a dozen families and producing canoes holding 60 men. One of their better known features were their 50 feet tall totem poles. North of the Tlingits were the Eskimoes along the Arctic shoreline living, as the Aleuts on the islands, by hunting chiefly seals and walruses. In central Alaska were the Athabascan Indians, bearing no cultural resemblance to the coastal people. They are linguistic cousins of the Apaches and Navajos and lived in small nomadic bands in bare simplicity, existing chiefly on the caribou. They did create the snow-shoe to facilitate getting about in deep snow. (Ref. 234 ) Additional Notes

By 1745 when the Russians were already well established in the Aleutians, the English had only a handful of isolated trading posts west of Hudson Bay. (Ref. 8 ) On the west coast of Canada, Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega sailed the "Sonora" beyond the 56th degree latitude and examined the coast belonging to Russia,- which is now the upper of British Columbia. Then in 1778 while Captain Cook was sailing up the coast to reach the Aleutians, he incidentally discovered Nootka sound on Vancouver Island. Spanish historians claim, however, that Juan Perez had discovered this sound previously in 1774.

On the Atlantic side, in 1711 Britain attempted to take French Quebec and Canada, by sending seven regiments of Marlborough's best, along with 1,500 colonials into the St. Lawrence. Ten of their ships were sunk and the expedition f ailed. The war in Europe ended 2 years later, however, and France's position in southeastern Canada was greatly weakened by the Treaty of Utrecht, which terminated the War of the Spanish Succession, or Queen Anne's war, as it was called in America. (Ref. 222 ) France lost Newfoundland,

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Maciej
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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