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Aardrykskunde

Graad 5

Fisiese struktuur van suid-afrika

Module 10

Verandering van die landskap

Die landskap soos wat ons dit sien met valleie, heuwels, mere, damme, ens., verander voortdurend. Die verandering word óf deur die mens veroorsaak, óf deur natuurlike kragte.

R iviere

  • In die reënseisoen versamel die water wat op die grond val, in klein stroompies wat later groter strome of riviere vorm, en wat ‘n afdraende pad na die see soek. Soos die water oor die grond beweeg, voer dit nie alleen die bolaag saam nie, maar breek dit ook die grond en selfs rotse in kleiner deeltjies op. So word riviere oor lang periodes al dieper en breër uitgekalwe. Mettertyd ontstaan valleie en skeure in die grond. Ons dink byvoorbeeld hier aan die Visrivier-afgronde in Namibië.

E rosie

  • Met die aanslae van die natuur soos ryp, hael, sneeu en son word rotse meer poreus en is daar voortdurend klein stukkies wat wegslyt en afbreek. Hierdie proses van afbreking word verwering genoem. Wanneer die wind of reën (water) nou kom en hierdie klein deeltjies wegwaai of wegspoel, noem ons die verskuiwing van die materiaal erosie. Die klein stukkies word later weer op ‘n ander plek gedeponeer en vorm dan ‘n nuwe vrugbare laag grond.
  • Indien hierdie proses oor ‘n lang tydperk voortduur, word die voorkoms van die landskap verander met byvoorbeeld die vorming van valleie, koppies en klowe. Sagter rots verweer vinniger as die omliggende harde rots en so word interessante landskappe gevorm, soos die tafelkoppies wat so kenmerkend van die Groot-Karoo is.

Spoelkloof (Canyon)

Tafelkop

Vulkane

  • Die buitenste laag van die aarde word die kors genoem. Dit is uit rotse saamgestel. Diep binne-in die aarde is dit so warm dat die rotsmateriaal smelt en magma (gesmelte rots) vorm. Hierdie kokende massa soek voortdurend vir swak plekke in die aardkors om te kan deurbreek. Wanneer die gesmelte rots die aardoppervlak bereik, word dit lawa genoem. Dit koel af, stol en vorm rotse wat nuwe landskappe skep. Die rotskrater is soms so groot dat dit hoë berge vorm.

Verskuiwings

  • Die aardkors word voortdurend onderwerp aan druk- en trekkragte as gevolg van die onstabiele binne-kern. Dit lei soms daartoe dat ‘n deel van die aardkors van onder af opgestoot word en dan bo die res van die landskap uitsteek. Die rand / helling waar die skuifbeweging plaasgevind het, word ‘n verskuiwing genoem. Op hierdie manier kan ons dan ook dikwels die verskillende rotslae, soos dit onder die aardoppervlak lê, duidelik sien.

Die mens

  • Die mens beheer graag sy omgewing en verander dit voortdurend om aan sy behoeftes te voldoen. Voorbeelde hiervan is die bou van paaie en brûe, groot ontwikkelings, damme, ens. Kan julle nog voorbeelde noem?

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om 'n kort paragraaf te skryf oor 'n sekere onderwerp

[lu 2.3]

Skryf ‘n kort paragraaf oor hoe en waarom die mens voortdurend die landskap rondom hom verander.

Het julle aan die volgende aspekte geraak : behuising ; mynbou; boerdery ; vervoer ?

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om navorsing oor sekere onderwerpe te doen

[lu 2.2; 2.3]

Kies een van die volgende maniere waarop die mens indirek die natuurlike landskap beïnvloed. Besoek jou naaste biblioteek of raadpleeg ander bronne om meer hieroor uit te vind en skryf ‘n kort verslag wat aan die klas voorgedra kan word.

  • Ontbossing
  • Gronderosie as gevolg van menslike aktiwiteite
  • Plantegroei word uitgeroei as gevolg van aardverwarming
  • Mono-boerdery
  • Afvalprodukte se invloed op plantegroei

Assessering

LU 1

AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEK

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.

Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:

  • bronne met nuttige aardrykskundige inligting kan kies en gebruik;
  • inligting kategoriseer;
  • 'n indeks gebruik om plekke op wêreldatlaskaarte te vind;
  • deur projekte, bespreking, debat en diagramme, kennis en begrip van die vraagstuk toon [dra die antwoord oor].

Memorandum

  • Behuising
  • Landbou
  • Paaie
  • Mynbou

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
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Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde graad 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10985/1.2
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