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The table below summarize much of the discussion in this module to this point. It also refers to some point that are beyond the scope of this module. For example, Sandel provides a communitarian criticism of Rawls. Rawls’ self can be detached from its social surroundings and defined in terms of rational self-interest. Sandel argues that justice must confront more robust selves or individuals who are inseparable from their social context. Hence, the social contract itself (or Rawls’ original position) must always factor in the projects and social relations that partially constitute who we are. Second, Walzer argues that there are spheres of justice that correspond to different practical areas; each sphere has its own distinct principle or procedure of distribution and these different procedures cannot be reduced to one all-inclusive view. So economic goods can be distributed consequentially but political goods must have some kind of right-based or deontological procedure. Third and finally, Nussbaum and Sen see justice as following from a more robust conception of human dignity that is filled out by substantive freedoms or what they term capabilities. M. Nussbaum. (2006). Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, species Membership . Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press.

Root meaning

Key Features

Kinds and Senses

Useful Frameworks


Giving each what is due—places justice under the debits/credit metaphor Pattern Approaches: Justice = the conformity of current distribution to an ideal pattern
  • Equality or equal shares of benefits and burdens
  • Merit or the most to those who merit or deserve it
  • Need or the most to those who have the greatest needs
Distributive : dividing burdens and benefits of social cooperation fairly. Retributive : fair and impartial administration of rewards and punishments Social Contract Version One
  • Agents pursuing self-interest
  • Negotiating out of condition of equality in SN
  • Agreement reached among parties exchanging liberties to secure rights represents a just procedure
  • Does civil law provide victims of wrongful dismissal with adequate means of redress?
Justice as fairness and justice as equality
  • First emphasizes impartiality
  • Second emphasizes equality
Historical Process View : if the current distribution results from a process free of coercion and deception, then it is just.
  • Justice as Entitlement results from repeated applications of …
  • Justice in acquisition (mixing one’s labor with an object)
  • and Justice in transfer (voluntary exchange of goods between individuals)
Michael Jordan is entitled to his larger share if collectively we have transferred our money to him to watch him play.
Compensatory : fair compensation for wrongful injuries Administrative : Impartial and fair administration of rules and procedures (consistent with due process) Rawls Version: Social Contract under veil of ignoranceRational Self-Interest (maximize primary goods) + Veil of Ignorance (Ignorance of natural talents, gender, social class, economic and political status, etc.) = Procedural Justice as spelled out in two principles:1. Equal Liberties Principle : “Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others.”2. Difference Principle : “social and economic inequalities…are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of society.” (Rawls, Theory of Justice in Beachamp and Bowie Business Ethics, 561.) Incident at Morales
  • Do maquiladores represent a fair distri bution of economic goods and risks? Consider especially, lower wages and lower environmental, and safety standards
Intuition Pump
  • 3 students can help you move: one is needy, another skilled, and the three are available (share wages?)
Metaphor: Justice emerges out of a social contract
  • agents with rational self-interest (utility maximizers)
  • mutually beneficial exchange or quid pro quo
  • knowledge and comprehension of terms of quid pro quo
  • Voluntary (Free and informed Consent)
In general processes of acquisition and transfer must be liberty-preserving or free from coercion and deception Justice can be treated as a right essential to autonomy, vulnerable to a standard threat and feasible in that it does not deprive the correlative duty-holder of anything essential Utilitarianism : Justice is intrinsically valuable but only as a part of happiness (especially happiness of the greatest number) These two principle allow for maximizing primary goods (=rational self-interest) under a veil of ignorance according to RawlsPrimary Goods:
  • rights and liberties
  • opportunities and powers
  • income and wealth
  • Justifiable under historical process view?
  • Justifiable under need, equality, or merit patterns?
Justice has been characterized in different ways as a …
  • right essential to autonomy
  • good essential to human happiness
  • virtue or disposition of character of human agent
Spheres of Justice (Walzer): There are several distinct spheres of practical activity, each with its own rule of distributive justice. (Examples: Educational, Political, Economic) One Laptop Per Child
  • Do XO laptops provide the means to reduce the digital divide between developed and developing nations?

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection of ethics modules for civis. OpenStax CNX. Feb 26, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11493/1.1
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