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[72] Thirdly, these internal causes of error andfolly are subject to very little counteraction or correction from outside. The average reader knows hardly anything about textualcriticism, and therefore cannot exercise a vigilant control over the writer: the addle-pate is at liberty to maunder and theimpostor is at liberty to lie. And, what is worse, the reader often shares the writer's prejudices, and is far too well pleasedwith his conclusions to examine either his premises or his reasoning. Stand on a barrel in the streets of Bagdad, and say ina loud voice,"Twice two is four, and ginger is hot in the mouth, therefore Mohammed is the prophet of God,"and your logic will probably escape criticism; or, if anyone by chance shouldcriticise it, you could easily silence him by calling him a Christian dog.

Fourthly, the things which the textual critic has to talk about are not things which present themselves clearly and sharply to themind; and it is easy to say, and to fancy that you think, what you really do not think, and even what, if you seriously tried tothink it, you would find to be unthinkable. Mistakes are therefore made which could not be made if the matter underdiscussion were any corporeal object, having qualities perceptible to the senses. The human senses have had a much longer historythan the human intellect, and have been brought much nearer to perfection: they are far more acute, far less easy to deceive.The difference between an icicle and a red-hot poker is really much slighter than the difference between truth and falsehood orsense and nonsense; yet it is much more immediately noticeable and much more universally noticed, because the body is more sensitivethan the mind. I find therefore that a good way of exposing the falsehood of a statement or the absurdity of an argument intextual criticism is to transpose it into sensuous terms and see what it looks like then. If the nouns which we use are the namesof things which can be handled or tasted, differing from one another in being hot or cold, sweet or sour, then we realise whatwe are saying and take care what we say. But [73] the terms oftextual criticism are deplorably intellectual; and probably in no other field do men tell so many falsehoods in the idle hope thatthey are telling the truth, or talk so much nonsense in the vague belief that they are talking sense.

This is particularly unfortunate and particularly reprehensible, because there is no science in which it is morenecessary to take precautions against error arising from internal causes. Those who follow the physical sciences enjoy the greatadvantage that they can constantly bring their opinions to the test of fact, and verify or falsify their theories by experiment.When a chemist has mixed sulphur and saltpetre and charcoal in certain proportions and wishes to ascertain if the mixture isexplosive, he need only apply a match. When a doctor has compounded a new drug and desires to find out what diseases, ifany, it is good for, he has only to give it to his patients allround and notice which die and which recover. Our conclusions regarding the truth or falsehood of a MS. reading can never beconfirmed or corrected by an equally decisive test; for the only equally decisive test would be the production of the author'sautograph. The discovery merely of better and older MSS. than were previously known to us is not equally decisive; and even this inadequate verification is not to beexpected often, or on a large scale. It is therefore a matter of common prudence and common decency that we should neglect nosafeguard lying within our reach; that we should look sharp after ourselves; that we should narrowly scrutinise our own proceedingsand rigorously analyse our springs of action. How far these elementary requirements are satisfied, we will now learn fromexamples.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Text as property/property as text. OpenStax CNX. Feb 10, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10217/1.7
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