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<<"The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is "


return 0;


The output of the above program:

The decimal (base 10) value of 15 is 15

The octal (base 8) value of 15 is 17

The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is f

To designate an octal integer constant, the number must have a leading 0 . Hexadecimal number are denoted using a leading 0x .


// Octal and hexadecimal integer constant


int main()


cout<<"The decimal value of 025 is "<<025<<endl

<<"The decimal value of 0x37 is "<<0x37<<endl;

return 0;


The output of the above program:

The decimal value of 025 is 21

The decimal value of 0x37 is 55

Using mathematical library functions

Although addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are easily accomplished using C++’s arithmetic operators, no such operators exist for finding the square root of a number or determining trigonometric values. To facilitate such calculations, C++ provides standard library functions that can be included in a program.

Functions are normally called by writing the name of the function, followed by a left parenthesis, followed by the argument (or a comma-separated list of arguments) of the function, followed by a right parenthesis. For example, a programmer desiring to calculate and print the square root of 900.0 might write:


When this statement is executed, the math library function sqrt is called to calculate the square root of the number contained in the parentheses (900.0). The number 900.0 is the argument of the sqrt function. The preceding statement would print 30. The sqrt function takes an argument of type double and returns a result of type double.

If your program uses mathematic function sqrt(), it should have the preprocessor command #include<math.h> in the beginning of the program. This makes a mathematical library accessible. Below are some commonly used mathematical functions provided in C++.

Mathematical functions

Except abs(a), the functions all take an argument of type double and return a value of type double.


// this program calculates the area of a triangle

// given its three sides



int main()


double a,b,c, s;

a = 3;

b = 4;

c = 5;

s = (a+b+c)/2.0;

area = sqrt(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c));

cout<<"The area of the triangle = "<<area<<endl;

return 0;


The output of the above program:

The area of the triangle = 6.0


We have already seen the conversion of an operand’s data type within mixed-mode expressions and across assignment operators. In addition to these implicit data type conversions that are automatically made within mixed-mode expressions and assignment, C++ also provides for explicit user-specified type conversion. This method of type conversion is called casting . The word cast is used in the sense of “casting into a mold.”

Casting or type casting , copies the value contained in a variable of one data type into a variable of another data type.

The C++ syntax for casting variables is

variable = new_type( old_variable);

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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