# 2.2 Bernoulli’s equation  (Page 4/7)

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## Making connections: take-home investigation with two strips of paper

For a good illustration of Bernoulli’s principle, make two strips of paper, each about 15 cm long and 4 cm wide. Hold the small end of one strip up to your lips and let it drape over your finger. Blow across the paper. What happens? Now hold two strips of paper up to your lips, separated by your fingers. Blow between the strips. What happens?

## Velocity measurement

[link] shows two devices that measure fluid velocity based on Bernoulli’s principle. The manometer in [link] (a) is connected to two tubes that are small enough not to appreciably disturb the flow. The tube facing the oncoming fluid creates a dead spot having zero velocity ( ${v}_{1}=0$ ) in front of it, while fluid passing the other tube has velocity ${v}_{2}$ . This means that Bernoulli’s principle as stated in ${P}_{1}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{1}^{2}={P}_{2}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}$ becomes

${P}_{1}={P}_{2}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}\text{.}$

Thus pressure ${P}_{2}$ over the second opening is reduced by $\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}$ , and so the fluid in the manometer rises by $h$ on the side connected to the second opening, where

$h\propto \frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}\text{.}$

(Recall that the symbol $\text{∝}$ means “proportional to.”) Solving for ${v}_{2}$ , we see that

${v}_{2}\propto \sqrt{h}\text{.}$

[link] (b) shows a version of this device that is in common use for measuring various fluid velocities; such devices are frequently used as air speed indicators in aircraft.

## Summary

• Bernoulli’s equation states that the sum on each side of the following equation is constant, or the same at any two points in an incompressible frictionless fluid:
${P}_{1}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{1}^{2}+\rho {\mathrm{gh}}_{1}={P}_{2}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}+\rho {\text{gh}}_{2}.$
• Bernoulli’s principle is Bernoulli’s equation applied to situations in which depth is constant. The terms involving depth (or height h ) subtract out, yielding
${P}_{1}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{1}^{2}={P}_{2}+\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{\rho v}}_{2}^{2}.$
• Bernoulli’s principle has many applications, including entrainment, wings and sails, and velocity measurement.

## Conceptual questions

You can squirt water a considerably greater distance by placing your thumb over the end of a garden hose and then releasing, than by leaving it completely uncovered. Explain how this works.

Water is shot nearly vertically upward in a decorative fountain and the stream is observed to broaden as it rises. Conversely, a stream of water falling straight down from a faucet narrows. Explain why, and discuss whether surface tension enhances or reduces the effect in each case.

Look back to [link] . Answer the following two questions. Why is ${P}_{\text{o}}$ less than atmospheric? Why is ${P}_{\text{o}}$ greater than ${P}_{\text{i}}$ ?

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Cied
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Azam
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Damian
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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