<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 8

Grond en mag

Module 9

Verandering in die lewe en werk in sa op die myne, landelike gebiede en stede

LEESSTUK 1

Verandering in die Lewe en Werk in SA op die Myne, Landelike Gebiede en Stede

Soos met die Franse Revolusie en die Industriële Revolusie in Brittanje, het die Minerale Revolusie in Suid-Afrika ‘n ingrypende verandering in die omgewing en sy mense teweeggebring.

Fortuinsoekers het van oor die hele wêreld na SA gestroom met die droom om gou ryk te word. Aan die begin was die Uitlanders van die boere in die omgewing afhanklik vir bv. vervoer en voedsel. Die dae van oppervlakkige spoelgoud en -diamante delf, was gou verby en dieper mynboutegnieke het beteken dat opgeleide tegnici sowel as ingewikkelde masjinerie ingevoer moes word. Om die goud uit die rotse te haal was ‘n ingewikkelde proses. In 1890 is ‘n spesiale sianiedproses ontwikkel. Hiervoor was nog meer werkers nodig.

Rondom die Kimberleymyn is die swart mynwerkers in kampongs gehuisves. Hierdie mense was kontrakarbeiders wat na 3 tot 6 maande teruggekeer het na hul stamlande nadat hul kontrakte verstryk het. Hierdie tydelike verblyf op die myne het verhoed dat werkers beter opgelei kon word. Die mynbesitters het die lone so laag as moontlik gehou om hul eie wins so hoog as moontlik te hou. Soos met die Industriële Revolusie, het die ryk mense ryker, en die armes armer geword. Waar die onbeplande myndorpies met die tyd orde gekry het sodat gesondheid en opleiding aandag kon geniet, het die toestande in die kampongs verswak.

Bogenoemde situasie om die myne, het verder verswak toe daar tussen 1904 en 1907 60 000 werkers uit China ingevoer is om op die goudmyne te werk. Na die Suid-Afrikaanse oorlog was daar ‘n groot tekort aan werkers, maar hierdie stelsel om arbeiders in te voer het vir niemand enige voordeel ingehou nie. Gevolglik is die meeste Chinese werkers teruggestuur.

In 1896 is daar ‘n beperking op die immigrasie van Indiërwerkers na SA geplaas. Hierdie werkers het hoofsaaklik in Natal op die suikerplantasies gewerk.

Die bruin plaaswerkers in die Kaapkolonie was swaar getref deur die swak opbrengste op die wynplase want oeste is deur plae verwoes. Plaaseienaars het groot bedrae geld aan die bank geskuld en werkverskaffing het afgeneem. Mense in die klerebedryf is ook deur die afname in die handel getref. Vervaardigers was afhanklik van die invoer en uitvoer van produkte.

Aan die Witwatersrand het die Britse Uitlanders op verteenwoordiging in die Volksraad (parlement) van die Transvaal aangedring. Hulle wou hê dat Brittanje die beheer oor Transvaal moes oorneem. Die bekendste poging om die Transvaal oor te neem, was die Jameson-inval, gesteun deur die mynmagnaat Cecil John Rhodes. President Kruger se boerekommando’s het daarin geslaag om die invallers in 1896 te stuit. Hulle is gevange geneem.

Die situasie in Suid-Afrika het drasties verander. Verskillende groepe mense het probeer om ‘n bestaan te maak op die myne, in stede, dorpies en op plase.

Klasbespreking

  • Skryf na jou mening die slimste antwoord van jou klaslede op die volgende vrae neer. Lees hierdie vrae en antwoorde weer deur voor die eksamen.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11043/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Geskiedenis graad 8' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask