19.7 Energy stored in capacitors

 Page 1 / 3
• List some uses of capacitors.
• Express in equation form the energy stored in a capacitor.
• Explain the function of a defibrillator.

Most of us have seen dramatizations in which medical personnel use a defibrillator    to pass an electric current through a patient’s heart to get it to beat normally. (Review [link] .) Often realistic in detail, the person applying the shock directs another person to “make it 400 joules this time.” The energy delivered by the defibrillator is stored in a capacitor and can be adjusted to fit the situation. SI units of joules are often employed. Less dramatic is the use of capacitors in microelectronics, such as certain handheld calculators, to supply energy when batteries are charged. (See [link] .) Capacitors are also used to supply energy for flash lamps on cameras.

Energy stored in a capacitor is electrical potential energy, and it is thus related to the charge $Q$ and voltage $V$ on the capacitor. We must be careful when applying the equation for electrical potential energy $\text{Δ}\text{PE}=q\text{Δ}V\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}$ to a capacitor. Remember that $\text{Δ}\text{PE}$ is the potential energy of a charge $q$ going through a voltage $\text{Δ}V$ . But the capacitor starts with zero voltage and gradually comes up to its full voltage as it is charged. The first charge placed on a capacitor experiences a change in voltage $\text{Δ}V=0$ , since the capacitor has zero voltage when uncharged. The final charge placed on a capacitor experiences $\text{Δ}V=V$ , since the capacitor now has its full voltage $V$ on it. The average voltage on the capacitor during the charging process is $V/2$ , and so the average voltage experienced by the full charge $q$ is $V/2$ . Thus the energy stored in a capacitor, ${E}_{\text{cap}}$ , is

${E}_{\text{cap}}=\frac{QV}{2},$

where $Q$ is the charge on a capacitor with a voltage $V$ applied. (Note that the energy is not $\text{QV}$ , but $\text{QV}/2$ .) Charge and voltage are related to the capacitance $C$ of a capacitor by $Q=\text{CV}$ , and so the expression for ${E}_{\text{cap}}$ can be algebraically manipulated into three equivalent expressions:

${E}_{\text{cap}}=\frac{\text{QV}}{2}=\frac{{\text{CV}}^{2}}{2}=\frac{{Q}^{2}}{2C},$

where $Q$ is the charge and $V$ the voltage on a capacitor $C$ . The energy is in joules for a charge in coulombs, voltage in volts, and capacitance in farads.

Energy stored in capacitors

The energy stored in a capacitor can be expressed in three ways:

${E}_{\text{cap}}=\frac{\text{QV}}{2}=\frac{{\text{CV}}^{2}}{2}=\frac{{Q}^{2}}{2C},$

where $Q$ is the charge, $V$ is the voltage, and $C$ is the capacitance of the capacitor. The energy is in joules for a charge in coulombs, voltage in volts, and capacitance in farads.

In a defibrillator, the delivery of a large charge in a short burst to a set of paddles across a person’s chest can be a lifesaver. The person’s heart attack might have arisen from the onset of fast, irregular beating of the heart—cardiac or ventricular fibrillation. The application of a large shock of electrical energy can terminate the arrhythmia and allow the body’s pacemaker to resume normal patterns. Today it is common for ambulances to carry a defibrillator, which also uses an electrocardiogram to analyze the patient’s heartbeat pattern. Automated external defibrillators (AED) are found in many public places ( [link] ). These are designed to be used by lay persons. The device automatically diagnoses the patient’s heart condition and then applies the shock with appropriate energy and waveform. CPR is recommended in many cases before use of an AED.

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!