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Photo shows a water canal thick with bright green algae at the Beijing Zoo.
The uncontrolled growth of algae in this waterway has resulted in an algal bloom.

Rivers and streams

Rivers and the narrower streams that feed into the rivers are continuously moving bodies of water that carry water from the source or headwater to the mouth at a lake or ocean. The largest rivers include the Nile River in Africa, the Amazon River in South America, and the Mississippi River in North America ( [link] ).

Photo (a) shows a small shallow river in a forest. The water is flowing fast over a rocky bed. Photo (b) shows a wide, slow moving river.
Rivers range from (a) narrow and shallow to (b) wide and slow moving. (credit a: modification of work by Cory Zanker; credit b: modification of work by David DeHetre)

Abiotic features of rivers and streams vary along the length of the river or stream. Streams begin at a point of origin referred to as source water    . The source water is usually cold, low in nutrients, and clear. The channel    (the width of the river or stream) is narrower here than at any other place along the length of the river or stream. Headwater streams are of necessity at a higher elevation than the mouth of the river and often originate in regions with steep grades leading to higher flow rates than lower elevation stretches of the river.

Faster-moving water and the short distance from its origin results in minimal silt levels in headwater streams; therefore, the water is clear. Photosynthesis here is mostly attributed to algae that are growing on rocks; the swift current inhibits the growth of phytoplankton. Photosynthesis may be further reduced by tree cover reaching over the narrow stream. This shading also keeps temperatures lower. An additional input of energy can come from leaves or other organic material that falls into a river or stream from the trees and other plants that border the water. When the leaves decompose, the organic material and nutrients in the leaves are returned to the water. The leaves also support a food chain of invertebrates that eat them and are in turn eaten by predatory invertebrates and fish. Plants and animals have adapted to this fast-moving water. For instance, leeches (phylum Annelida) have elongated bodies and suckers on both ends. These suckers attach to the substrate, keeping the leech anchored in place. In temperate regions, freshwater trout species (phylum Chordata) may be an important predator in these fast-moving and colder river and streams.

As the river or stream flows away from the source, the width of the channel gradually widens, the current slows, and the temperature characteristically increases. The increasing width results from the increased volume of water from more and more tributaries. Gradients are typically lower farther along the river, which accounts for the slowing flow. With increasing volume can come increased silt, and as the flow rate slows, the silt may settle, thus increasing the deposition of sediment. Phytoplankton can also be suspended in slow-moving water. Therefore, the water will not be as clear as it is near the source. The water is also warmer as a result of longer exposure to sunlight and the absence of tree cover over wider expanses between banks. Worms (phylum Annelida) and insects (phylum Arthropoda) can be found burrowing into the mud. Predatory vertebrates (phylum Chordata) include waterfowl, frogs, and fishes. In heavily silt-laden rivers, these predators must find food in the murky waters, and, unlike the trout in the clear waters at the source, these vertebrates cannot use vision as their primary sense to find food. Instead, they are more likely to use taste or chemical cues to find prey.

Questions & Answers

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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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Azam
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Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology for slcc biol 1010. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11555/1.1
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