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The bottom line is that with socket programming, it is easy to write code that will cause a stream of bytes to flow in both directions between a clientand a server. This is no more difficult than causing a stream of bytes to flow in both directions between memory and a file on a disk.

However, getting the bytes to flow is the easy part. Beyond that, you must do all of the programming to implement an application protocol that is understoodby both the client and the server.

URL Programming

URL programming occurs at a higher level than socket programming, and in theory represents a very powerful idea.

In theory, by using the URL class, you can open a connection to a resource on the web, specified by a URL object, and simply call the getContent method on that URL object. The content of the resource will then be magically downloaded and will appear as an object on the clientmachine, even if it requires an application protocol that didn't exist when you wrote the program, and contains content that you didn't understand when youwrote the program.

This description may be a bit of an overstatement, but it is pretty close to the claims being made. This is a powerful idea, which may or may not bear fruitin the future.

If fully implemented by browsers, the idea means that you can place new and unusual material on a web site along with special content handlers and protocolhandlers. Then a cooperating browser will use those special handlers to move that material from the web site to the client and interpret its content once itgets there without a requirement to install software (such as plug-ins) on the client computer on a permanent basis.

Here is what Peter van der Linden has to say about this topic in his excellent book titled Just Java 1.1 and Beyond:

"If a browser doesn't recognize a media type, it should be able to download the code to process it from the same place it got the file. If theyever get this working, it will be ... a good thing."

Is it working, or will they ever get it working? I don't know. If it depends on cooperation among all the major players, including the major browser vendors- probably not. Therefore, I don't plan to spend much time on the topic of protocol and content handlers until I see some evidence that it is working tosuch an extent that it is practically useful.

That is not to say that you couldn't use the capability right now if you were developing an intranet and wanted the clients to have access to new and unusualcontent. It would be necessary for you to provide the appropriate protocol and content handlers, and it would probably be necessary for the clients to run Javaapplications written by you instead of standard browsers to access the data.

Also, the URL class provides an alternative way to connect one computer to another and transfer data on a stream basis, so we will see someexamples of retrieving data from a server by obtaining a URL connection, and then opening and servicing I/O streams between the client and the server. Wewill see some sample programs that make use of this technique, but we will also see that it is somewhat redundant with the socket programming approach.

A local area network

This is part of a sub-collection of modules designed for teaching network programming. Therefore, you may find some of the modules more meaningful if youare able to connect two or more computers in a local area network and run the sample programs across the network.

However, it is possible to simulate a network inside a single computer. If you are unable to create an actual network, you should be able to run all of thesample programs by simulating a network in your single computer.

The operating system

While the capabilities of Java are generally independent of the operating system in use, the manner in which an individual computer must be configured fornetwork operation is generally not independent of the operating system.

In those cases where these modules provide instructions for configuring the computer, those instructions will assume a Windows operating system. If you areusing a different operating system, you will need to translate those instructions into your operating system.

What's Next?

We will learn how to use the Java InetAddress class to find the domain name corresponding to an IP address, and to find the IP addresscorresponding to a domain name in our sample program in the next module.

Miscellaneous

This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Java4620: General Information
  • File: Java4620.htm
  • Published: 03/02/14
  • Revised 12/26/14
Disclaimers:

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published without my prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.

-end-

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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