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  • IP
  • TCP
  • UDP

IP

IP , which stands for Internet Protocol , is the protocol that will be involved below the Application Layer to move our data between a client and a server. Beyond knowing that it exists, we probably don't need toconcern ourselves with the fact that IP is being used

In fact, in some situations, some other protocol could be used to move our data between a client and a server. As long as it works, we really don't care toomuch.

In a nutshell, IP is a network protocol that moves packets of data from a source to a destination. As the name implies, this is the protocol normally usedon the Internet.

TCP

It is sometimes important to be able to have confidence that all packets that make up a message arrive at the destination undamaged and in proper order.

The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) was added to IP to give each end of a connection the ability to acknowledge receipt of IP packets and to request retransmission of corrupted or lost packets. Also TCP makes it possible to put the packets back together at the destination in the same order that they were sent.

Therefore, you will often hear people using both acronyms in the same breath, as in TCP/IP . The two work together to provide a reliable method of encapsulating a message into data packets, sending the packets to adestination, and reconstructing the message from the packets at the destination.

UDP

Sometimes it may not be critically important that all the packets arrive at the destination or that they arrive in the proper order. Further, sometimes, you maynot want to incur the time delays and overhead cost associated with those guarantees.

For example, if one computer is sending date and time information to another computer every 100 milliseconds, and the data in the packets is displayed on adigital clock as it is received, you might prefer that each packet make the trip as quickly as possible even if that means that occasionally a packet will belost or damaged.

The User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is available to support this type of operation. UDP is often referred to as an unreliable protocol because there is no guarantee that a series of packets will arrive inthe right order, or that they will arrive at all.

As Java programmers, we have the choice of TCP or UDP , and we need to know enough about the characteristics of each to be able to makeinformed choices between them.

IP Addresses

We don't really need to know very much about IP to be able to use it, but we do need to know about the addressing scheme used in IP .

Every computer attached to an IP network has a unique address, typically consisting of four bytes or 32 bits ( IPv4 ) .

Thirty-two bits are sufficient to define a large number of unique addresses, but the manner in which addresses are allocated is wasteful, and many of theaddresses that have been allocated are not being used.

Efforts are underway to expand the number of possible unique addresses to a much larger number. The planned number is the number of unique addresses thatcan be represented with a 128-bit address. The new scheme is known as IPv6 .

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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