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  • IP
  • TCP
  • UDP


IP , which stands for Internet Protocol , is the protocol that will be involved below the Application Layer to move our data between a client and a server. Beyond knowing that it exists, we probably don't need toconcern ourselves with the fact that IP is being used

In fact, in some situations, some other protocol could be used to move our data between a client and a server. As long as it works, we really don't care toomuch.

In a nutshell, IP is a network protocol that moves packets of data from a source to a destination. As the name implies, this is the protocol normally usedon the Internet.


It is sometimes important to be able to have confidence that all packets that make up a message arrive at the destination undamaged and in proper order.

The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) was added to IP to give each end of a connection the ability to acknowledge receipt of IP packets and to request retransmission of corrupted or lost packets. Also TCP makes it possible to put the packets back together at the destination in the same order that they were sent.

Therefore, you will often hear people using both acronyms in the same breath, as in TCP/IP . The two work together to provide a reliable method of encapsulating a message into data packets, sending the packets to adestination, and reconstructing the message from the packets at the destination.


Sometimes it may not be critically important that all the packets arrive at the destination or that they arrive in the proper order. Further, sometimes, you maynot want to incur the time delays and overhead cost associated with those guarantees.

For example, if one computer is sending date and time information to another computer every 100 milliseconds, and the data in the packets is displayed on adigital clock as it is received, you might prefer that each packet make the trip as quickly as possible even if that means that occasionally a packet will belost or damaged.

The User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is available to support this type of operation. UDP is often referred to as an unreliable protocol because there is no guarantee that a series of packets will arrive inthe right order, or that they will arrive at all.

As Java programmers, we have the choice of TCP or UDP , and we need to know enough about the characteristics of each to be able to makeinformed choices between them.

IP Addresses

We don't really need to know very much about IP to be able to use it, but we do need to know about the addressing scheme used in IP .

Every computer attached to an IP network has a unique address, typically consisting of four bytes or 32 bits ( IPv4 ) .

Thirty-two bits are sufficient to define a large number of unique addresses, but the manner in which addresses are allocated is wasteful, and many of theaddresses that have been allocated are not being used.

Efforts are underway to expand the number of possible unique addresses to a much larger number. The planned number is the number of unique addresses thatcan be represented with a 128-bit address. The new scheme is known as IPv6 .

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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