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  • List the rules for ray tracking for thin lenses.
  • Illustrate the formation of images using the technique of ray tracking.
  • Determine power of a lens given the focal length.

Lenses are found in a huge array of optical instruments, ranging from a simple magnifying glass to the eye to a camera’s zoom lens. In this section, we will use the law of refraction to explore the properties of lenses and how they form images.

The word lens derives from the Latin word for a lentil bean, the shape of which is similar to the convex lens in [link] . The convex lens shown has been shaped so that all light rays that enter it parallel to its axis cross one another at a single point on the opposite side of the lens. (The axis is defined to be a line normal to the lens at its center, as shown in [link] .) Such a lens is called a converging (or convex) lens for the converging effect it has on light rays. An expanded view of the path of one ray through the lens is shown, to illustrate how the ray changes direction both as it enters and as it leaves the lens. Since the index of refraction of the lens is greater than that of air, the ray moves towards the perpendicular as it enters and away from the perpendicular as it leaves. (This is in accordance with the law of refraction.) Due to the lens’s shape, light is thus bent toward the axis at both surfaces. The point at which the rays cross is defined to be the focal point     F of the lens. The distance from the center of the lens to its focal point is defined to be the focal length     f size 12{f} {} of the lens. [link] shows how a converging lens, such as that in a magnifying glass, can converge the nearly parallel light rays from the sun to a small spot.

The figure on the right shows a convex lens. Three rays heading from left to right, 1, 2, and 3, are considered. Ray 2 falls on the axis and rays 1 and 3 are parallel to the axis. The distance from the center of the lens to the focal point F is small f on the right side of the lens. Rays 1 and 3 after refraction converge at F on the axis. Ray 2 on the axis goes undeviated. The figure on the left shows an expanded view of refraction for ray 1. The angle of incidence is theta 1 and angle of refraction theta 2 and a dotted line is the perpendicular drawn to the surface of the lens at the point of incidence. The ray after the refraction at the second surface emerges with an angle equal to theta 1 prime with the perpendicular drawn at that point. The perpendiculars are shown as dotted lines.
Rays of light entering a converging lens parallel to its axis converge at its focal point F. (Ray 2 lies on the axis of the lens.) The distance from the center of the lens to the focal point is the lens’s focal length f size 12{f} {} . An expanded view of the path taken by ray 1 shows the perpendiculars and the angles of incidence and refraction at both surfaces.

Converging or convex lens

The lens in which light rays that enter it parallel to its axis cross one another at a single point on the opposite side with a converging effect is called converging lens.

Focal point f

The point at which the light rays cross is called the focal point F of the lens.

Focal length f size 12{f} {}

The distance from the center of the lens to its focal point is called focal length f size 12{f} {} .

A person’s hand is holding a magnifying glass to focus the sunlight to a point. The magnifying glass focuses the sunlight to burn paper.
Sunlight focused by a converging magnifying glass can burn paper. Light rays from the sun are nearly parallel and cross at the focal point of the lens. The more powerful the lens, the closer to the lens the rays will cross.

The greater effect a lens has on light rays, the more powerful it is said to be. For example, a powerful converging lens will focus parallel light rays closer to itself and will have a smaller focal length than a weak lens. The light will also focus into a smaller and more intense spot for a more powerful lens. The power     P size 12{P} {} of a lens is defined to be the inverse of its focal length. In equation form, this is

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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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