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Current

Flow of charge

We have been talking about moving charge. We need to be able to deal with numbers. How much charge is moving, how fast is it moving? The concept that represents this information is called current . Current allows us to quantify the movement of charge.

When we talk about current we talk about how much charge moves past a fixed point in circuit in one second. Think of charges being pushed around the circuit by the battery, there are charges in the wires but unless there is a battery they won't move. When one charge moves the charges next to it also move. They keep their spacing as if you had a tube of marbles like in this picture.

If you push one marble into the tube one must come out the other side. If you look at any point in the tube and push one marble into the tube, one marble will move past the point you are looking at. This is similar to charges in the wires of a circuit.

If one charge moves they all move and the same number move at every point in the circuit. This is due to the conservation of charge.

Current

Now that we've thought about the moving charges and visualised what is happening we need to get back to quantifying moving charge. I've already told you that we call moving charge current but we still need to define it precisely.

Current

Current is the rate at which charges moves past a fixed point in a circuit. We use the symbol I to show current and it is measured in amperes (A). One ampere is one coulomb of charge moving in one second.

I = Q Δ t

When current flows in a circuit we show this on a diagram by adding arrows. The arrows show the direction of flow in a circuit. By convention we say that charge flows from the positive terminal on a battery to the negative terminal. We measure current with an ammeter

Series circuits

In a series circuit, the charge has a single path from the battery, returning to the battery.

The arrows in this picture show you the direction that charge will flow in the circuit. They don't show you much charge will flow, only the direction.

Interesting fact

Benjamin Franklin made a guess about the direction of charge flow when rubbing smooth wax with rough wool.He thought that the charges flowed from the wax to the wool (i.e. from positive to negative) which was opposite to the realdirection. Due to this, electrons are said to have a negative charge and so objects which Ben Franklin called “negative” (meaning a shortage of charge) really have an excessof electrons. By the time the true direction of electron flow was discovered, the convention of “positive” and “negative” hadalready been so well accepted in the scientific world that no effort was made to change it.
A battery does not produce the same amount of current no matter what is connected to it. While the voltageproduced by a battery is constant, the amount of current supplied depends on what is in the circuit.

How does the current through the battery in a circuit with several resistors in series compare to the current in a circuit with asingle resistor (assuming all the resistors are the same)?

Experiment : current in series circuits

Aim:

To determine the effect of multiple resistors on current in a circuit

Apparatus:

  • Battery
  • Resistors
  • Light bulb
  • Wires

Method:

  1. Construct the following circuits
  2. Rank the three circuits in terms of the brightness of the bulb.

Conclusions:

The brightness of the bulb is an indicator of how much current is flowing. If the bulb gets brighter because of a change then more current is flowing. If the bulb gets dimmer less current is flowing. You will find that the more resistors you have the dimmer the bulb.

Parallel circuits

How does the current through the battery in a circuit with several resistors in parallel compare to the current in a circuit with asingle resistor?

Experiment : current in series circuits

Aim:

To determine the effect of multiple resistors on current in a circuit

Apparatus:

  • Battery
  • Resistors
  • Light bulb
  • Wires

Method:

  1. Construct the following circuits
  2. Rank the three circuits in terms of the brightness of the bulb.

Conclusions:

The brightness of the bulb is an indicator of how much current is flowing. If the bulb gets brighter because of a change then more current is flowing. If the bulb gets dimmer less current is flowing. You will find that the more resistors you have the brighter the bulb.

Why is this the case? Why do more resistors make it easier for charge to flow in the circuit? It is because they are in parallel so there are more paths for charge to take to move. You can think of it like a highway with more lanes, or the tube of marbles splitting into multiple parallel tubes. The more branches there are, the easier it is for charge to flow. You will learn more about the total resistance of parallel resistors later but always remember that more resistors in parallel mean more pathways. In series the pathways come one after the other so it does not make it easier for charge to flow.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
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Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Porter
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11245/1.3
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