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These laws against discrimination have reduced the gender wage gap. A study by the Department of Labor in 2007 compared salaries of men and women who have similar educational achievement, work experience, and occupation and found that the gender wage gap is only 5%.

In the case of the earnings gap between blacks and whites (and also between Hispanics and whites), probably the single largest step that could be taken at this point in U.S. history to close the earnings gap would be to reduce the gap in educational achievement. Part of the answer to this issue involves finding ways to improve the performance of schools, which is a highly controversial topic in itself. In addition, the education gap is unlikely to close unless black and Hispanic families and peer groups strengthen their culture of support for educational achievement.

Affirmative action is the name given to active efforts by government or businesses that give special rights to minorities in hiring and promotion to make up for past discrimination. Affirmative action, in its limited and not especially controversial form, means making an effort to reach out to a broader range of minority candidates for jobs. In its more aggressive and controversial form, affirmative action required government and companies to hire a specific number or percentage of minority employees. However, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against state affirmative action laws. Today, affirmative action policies are applied only to federal contractors who have lost a discrimination lawsuit. This type of redress is enforced by the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) .

An increasingly diverse workforce

Racial and ethnic diversity is on the rise in the U.S. population and work force. As [link] shows, while the white Americans composed 78% of the population in 2012, the U.S. Bureau of the Census projects that whites will be 69% of the U.S. population by 2060. The proportion of U.S. citizens who are of Hispanic background is predicted to rise substantially. Moreover, in addition to expected changes in the population, diversity is being increased in the workforce as the women who entered the workforce in the 1970s and 1980s are now moving up the promotion ladders within their organizations.

Projected changes in america’s racial and ethnic diversity

The graph shows how populations of various ethnicities are predicted to change by 2060. The percentage of whites is expected to drop from 78% to 69%. The number of blacks is expected to increase from 13% to 15%. The number of Asians is expected to rise from 5.1% to 8.2%. The number of NHPIs is expected to rise from 0.2% to 0.3%. The number of AIANs is expected to rise from 1.2% to 1.5%. Additionally, the number of people who identify with two or more races is expected to rise from 2.4% to 6.4%. The number of non-Hispanics is expected to drop from 63% to 43%. The number of Hispanics is expected to rise from 17% to 31%.
This figure shows projected changes in the ethnic makeup of the U.S. population by 2060. Note that “NHPI” stands for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. “AIAN” stands for American Indian and Alaska Native. Source: US Department of Commerce

Fortune-telling is not economics, but it still can be clarifying to speculate about the future. Optimists argue that the growing proportions of minority workers will knock over remaining discriminatory barriers. The economy will benefit as an increasing proportion of workers from traditionally disadvantaged groups have a greater opportunity to fulfill their potential. Pessimists worry that the social tensions between men and women and between ethnic groups will rise and that workers will be less productive as a result. Anti-discrimination policy, at its best, seeks to help society move toward the more optimistic outcome.

Questions & Answers

what are the principles of economics
Gajendra Reply
Economics is a social science that studies how people satisfy unlimited wants with scarce resources. It involves the analysis of choice and trade through the use of intuitive graphs and mathematical elements. The discipline is divided into two sections: microeconomics (micro) and macroeconomics(macr
Zain
micro and macro principles
Souley
I want to know about microeconomics principles
Gajendra
micro study economics partly eg hw mankind's makes decisions
Souley
explain clearly
Gajendra
it focuses on the actions of Individual agent within an economy like households,business etc
Souley
I understand
Gajendra
good
Souley
hellow guys
Paul
hi
Souley
hi
Gajendra
Hi
Souley
how are you guys doing
The
Helloooooo
Steven
Hi
Souley
Economics is difficult
The
yes, you can say but the positive thinkers and doers can not say like it.
Gajendra
Yeah. I'm pessimistic
The
and I procrastinate too much
The
is true
Souley
what's unemployment
Souley Reply
increase in inflation
Zain
increase in jobless peaople
Zain
who are capable of doing job
Zain
hi
Vijay
hi
Zain
distinguish between substitution effect and income effect
albert Reply
Elucidate more on this please!
Moshood Reply
hello
Kojo
hi
Peter
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Abdal
Hi
Anamaya
Watsup
Darlington
Hello
Darlington
hi
Abdal
Who is an economist
Darlington
Hi
Ihtisham
hi
Peter
hi
Abdal
yes
Fazal
still studying
sean
The substitution effect is the change in consumption patterns due to a change in the relative prices of goods.
Moshood
Income effect is the change in consumption patterns due to the change in purchasing power.
Moshood
still freshman studying at Tubman University
Emmanuel
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Brahim
hi
Chidi
hi
bola
hey
cherie
hlw
God
Hi
Owusu
Hi
Patricia
hi
Rod
hi
shaikh
what is agriculture?
Emmanuel
Srsly
Neil
Hi everyone.
Royal
Economic is a subject which study buying and selling.
Royal
can u elaborate more?
Dazy
it is the study of the wealth of of a nation
Adesina
It can also be defined as the social science that studies how the available scarce resources can be distributed to satisfy unlimited human want
Adesina
elo house !
Adesina
I ave a question too
Adesina
hi
Prtj
guys I have questions which I am not able to solve could you guys help me
Prtj
ask
kartik
what is economic about
Gene
What the difference between economics and economics education?
Rasaq
economics is all about natural resources and how they are distributed to satisfied human wants
Souley
Almsot the same
Steven
what z international trade
ntaate Reply
The exchange of produce and services among different countries.
Anamaya
the exchange of good & services across international boundaries
WILSON
conditions of international trade?
Nusrat
Compare and contrast between Natural and Artificial Resources and their ultimate impacts in an economy. Give one example to support your discussion.
Angela Reply
Exemple: Diamant or uranium, fer, calcaire
Ramadan
how does interest rate affect aggregate output
kelvin Reply
what is Keynesian theory
kelvin
need a curves for typical isoquost and isoquant
kelvin
what is isoquant
kelvin
isoquat is a curve shows differnt combinations of two inputs which can produce same level of output
Majid
examples of giffen goods
Getrude
then what isoquost
Peter
, if the price of an essential food staple, such as rice, rises it may mean that consumers have less money to buy more expensive foods, so they will actually be forced to buy more rice.
Peter
that's an example
Peter
majid Khan that's the wrong definition of isoquant
The
you are defining isocost
The
isocost curve is a locus of points that shows the different combinations of commodities purchased by a consumer with a fixed budget
The
The change in fiscal policy leads to an increased level of output and interest rates is because an increase in government expenses directly affects aggregate demand. A decline in taxes result in more disposable income, consequently leading to a rise in consumption expenditure.
Peter
dats for kelvin
Peter
dats d answer for the audio how does interest rate affect aggregate output
Peter
question not audio
Peter
u are right joker
Peter
what is journal entry?
Abel
explain the nature of economics
Matilda Reply
interpret micro economic issues
Matilda
ito ang dami ng producto na nais handa at kanyang ibenta ng isang prodyuser
Jomar Reply
i dont understand
Gaabshe
even I also don't understand ..this language.. vn I converse everybody say farzana ur language is not understood by all user? now no one there is question about it?
shaikh
he is saying that "this is the amount of product it wants to be ready and sells by a producer"
Aman
I Merr has knowledge,which is the economiccircuit role in a society
Ramadan
What is diminishing returns?
Shadrach Reply
explain competitive demand
ADENIJI Reply
the demand that are compiting for sale. the buyer can substitute one for another good
Iftikhar
yg
Margarette
the demand where commodities fight for the market. in this type of demand, commodities can be substituted for the most suitable one subject to ( price, consumers choice, consumers income etc)
WILSON
Demand is said to be competitive when a commodity that is needed to satisfy wants in place of another similar goods. increase in price of a commodity X will result in increase in demand of the substitute (commmodity Y).
yusuf
examples of giffen goods are garri (cassava), maize
yusuf Reply
what is Public Finance?
kweku Reply
it's basically the field of economics that deals with the government's involvement in the economy; from spending to maybe interest rate manipulation, etc.
Matthew
examples of giffen goods
Getrude
i want to get the solutions of problems how i get kindly give guidance
Syeda Reply
please give some suggestions about getting solutions of all chapters...
Syeda
hard work
Iftikhar
and the grace of God
The
knowledge skills
MUSA
Syeda Economics is difficult. No all fields are difficult
The
what is Keynesian
AKINOLA
Keynesian economics is the theory proposed by Keynes( an economist). He proposed to manipulate demand side factors to bring economy out of depression in 1930s.
Champro
whose totaly oppossid the government intervention and give importance to agreegad demand
Iftikhar
Good afternoon my fellow forum brothers and sisters
Abdullahi Reply
no just want to know true God
Suprim
Good afternoon!!
Martha
hey is there somebody single n young like me bcoz I'm looking for
Suprim

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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