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Making connections: take-home experiment—electrical energy use inventory

1) Make a list of the power ratings on a range of appliances in your home or room. Explain why something like a toaster has a higher rating than a digital clock. Estimate the energy consumed by these appliances in an average day (by estimating their time of use). Some appliances might only state the operating current. If the household voltage is 120 V, then use P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} . 2) Check out the total wattage used in the rest rooms of your school’s floor or building. (You might need to assume the long fluorescent lights in use are rated at 32 W.) Suppose that the building was closed all weekend and that these lights were left on from 6 p.m. Friday until 8 a.m. Monday. What would this oversight cost? How about for an entire year of weekends?

Section summary

  • Electric power P size 12{P} {} is the rate (in watts) that energy is supplied by a source or dissipated by a device.
  • Three expressions for electrical power are
    P = IV, size 12{P = ital "IV,"} {}
    P = V 2 R , size 12{P = { {V rSup { size 8{2} } } over {R} } ","} {}

    and

    P = I 2 R . size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R"."} {}
  • The energy used by a device with a power P size 12{P} {} over a time t size 12{t} {} is E = Pt size 12{E = ital "Pt"} {} .

Conceptual questions

Why do incandescent lightbulbs grow dim late in their lives, particularly just before their filaments break?

The power dissipated in a resistor is given by P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} , which means power decreases if resistance increases. Yet this power is also given by P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} , which means power increases if resistance increases. Explain why there is no contradiction here.

Problem exercises

What is the power of a 1.00 × 10 2 MV lightning bolt having a current of 2.00 × 10 4 A ?

2 . 00 × 10 12 W size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " W"} {}

What power is supplied to the starter motor of a large truck that draws 250 A of current from a 24.0-V battery hookup?

A charge of 4.00 C of charge passes through a pocket calculator’s solar cells in 4.00 h. What is the power output, given the calculator’s voltage output is 3.00 V? (See [link] .)

Photograph of a small calculator having a strip of solar cells just above the keys.
The strip of solar cells just above the keys of this calculator convert light to electricity to supply its energy needs. (credit: Evan-Amos, Wikimedia Commons)

How many watts does a flashlight that has 6.00 × 10 2 C pass through it in 0.500 h use if its voltage is 3.00 V?

Find the power dissipated in each of these extension cords: (a) an extension cord having a 0 . 0600 - Ω size 12{0 "." "0600-" %OMEGA } {} resistance and through which 5.00 A is flowing; (b) a cheaper cord utilizing thinner wire and with a resistance of 0 . 300 Ω . size 12{0 "." "300" %OMEGA } {}

(a) 1.50 W

(b) 7.50 W

Verify that the units of a volt-ampere are watts, as implied by the equation P = IV size 12{P = ital "IV"} {} .

Show that the units 1 V 2 / Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = V 2 / R size 12{P = V rSup { size 8{2} } /R} {} .

V 2 Ω = V 2 V/A = AV = C s J C = J s = 1 W

Show that the units 1 A 2 Ω = 1 W size 12{1" V" rSup { size 8{2} } / %OMEGA =1" W"} {} , as implied by the equation P = I 2 R size 12{P = I rSup { size 8{2} } R} {} .

Verify the energy unit equivalence that 1 kW h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h = 3" "." "60"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} .

1 kW h= 1 × 10 3 J 1 s 1 h 3600 s 1 h = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1" kW" cdot "h=" left ( { {1 times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} over {"1 s"} } right ) left (1" h" right ) left ( { {"3600"" s"} over {"1 h"} } right )=3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}

Electrons in an X-ray tube are accelerated through 1.00 × 10 2 kV and directed toward a target to produce X-rays. Calculate the power of the electron beam in this tube if it has a current of 15.0 mA.

An electric water heater consumes 5.00 kW for 2.00 h per day. What is the cost of running it for one year if electricity costs 12.0 cents /kW h size 12{"12" "." 0" cents/kW" cdot h} {} ? See [link] .

Photograph of an electric hot water heater connected to the electric and water supply
On-demand electric hot water heater. Heat is supplied to water only when needed. (credit: aviddavid, Flickr)

$438/y

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
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where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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