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The second category of bank asset is bonds , which are a common mechanism for borrowing, used by the federal and local government, and also private companies, and nonprofit organizations. A bank takes some of the money it has received in deposits and uses the money to buy bonds—typically bonds issued by the U.S. government. Government bonds are low-risk because the government is virtually certain to pay off the bond, albeit at a low rate of interest. These bonds are an asset for banks in the same way that loans are an asset: The bank will receive a stream of payments in the future. In our example, the Safe and Secure Bank holds bonds worth a total value of $4 million.

The final entry under assets is reserves    , which is money that the bank keeps on hand, and that is not loaned out or invested in bonds—and thus does not lead to interest payments. The Federal Reserve requires that banks keep a certain percentage of depositors’ money on “reserve,” which means either in their vaults or kept at the Federal Reserve Bank. This is called a reserve requirement. ( Monetary Policy and Bank Regulation will explain how the level of these required reserves are one policy tool that governments have to influence bank behavior.) Additionally, banks may also want to keep a certain amount of reserves on hand in excess of what is required. The Safe and Secure Bank is holding $2 million in reserves.

The net worth of a bank is defined as its total assets minus its total liabilities. For the Safe and Secure Bank shown in [link] , net worth is equal to $1 million; that is, $11 million in assets minus $10 million in liabilities. For a financially healthy bank, the net worth will be positive. If a bank has negative net worth and depositors tried to withdraw their money, the bank would not be able to give all depositors their money.

For some concrete examples of what banks do, watch this video from Paul Solman’s “Making Sense of Financial News.”

How banks go bankrupt

A bank that is bankrupt will have a negative net worth, meaning its assets will be worth less than its liabilities. How can this happen? Again, looking at the balance sheet helps to explain.

A well-run bank will assume that a small percentage of borrowers will not repay their loans on time, or at all, and factor these missing payments into its planning. Remember, the calculations of the expenses of banks every year includes a factor for loans that are not repaid, and the value of a bank’s loans on its balance sheet assumes a certain level of riskiness because some loans will not be repaid. Even if a bank expects a certain number of loan defaults, it will suffer if the number of loan defaults is much greater than expected, as can happen during a recession. For example, if the Safe and Secure Bank in [link] experienced a wave of unexpected defaults, so that its loans declined in value from $5 million to $3 million, then the assets of the Safe and Secure Bank would decline so that the bank had negative net worth.

Questions & Answers

What is Bank rate
Arranolla Reply
How defined macroeconomics
Arranolla Reply
Macroeconomics is the study of economy wide phenomena,including inflation,economic growth and unemployment.
munna
Someone tells you "That theory has no practical value because it is abstract, it is not real , it exist only in the mind of the theorist". Refute the Statement.
johan Reply
Truly theory sometimes look like an abstract, but some theory has been tested scientifically and we believed they exist. just like the law of demand which States that the higher the price, the lower the quantity demanded vice versa. But the rule does not hold in luxury goods.
Ganiyu
Ty for the answer sir..😘
johan
Is it right
Arranolla
explain estimation problem please.
Nnenna Reply
Which is the role of household in the Government policy?
Giada Reply
What is the role of household in the Government policy?
Giada Reply
households are very important because the consumption of the goods and services are by people. households play a big role in that
Raghava
And how about work? Can they influence the government policy through the work market?
Giada
yes household can influence government policy. you see it is all about the demand and supply of commodities. Demand generated by household has to be fulfilled by the industries which in turn ofcourse influence government policies
Rishav
Do the neoclassica theory and the Keynesian one have a different vision about the household's influence in the Government policy?
Giada
what are the causes of voluntary and involuntary unemployment?
JONATHAN Reply
involentary the unemployment is when say someone is working part-time but wishes to work full time
Warface
in most of economists view a person is involuntarily unemployed if he want to move for better wage rate at some point above the market equilibrium, that he stays right now.
Salman
what are the two type of intermediation and whats there differences?
Simonsakala Reply
This might help friend. ***economicshelp.org/blog/6318/economics/functions-and-examples-of-financial-intermediaries/
Ti
ok
Habeeph
I'm new myself. I couldn't explain it very well. That's why I gave the link.
Ti
OK tnx
Habeeph
i dont know sir pls explain anybody
Avinash
thanks...ti khu
Simonsakala
never worry
Habeeph
The are many types of intermediaries
Mohammed
You're welcome Simonsakala Musaka!
Ti
A lot of the content is verbatim what's in my College textbook except this book explains it more whereas my College Book seems to think I should already know haha
Ti
please help explain mpc
Nnenna Reply
MPC is partly the each income to expenditure..
Marusaha
s the proportion of an aggregate raise in pay that a consumer spends on the consumption of goods and services, as opposed to saving it.
Kalyango
it's simply how much of one's income spent on consumption. so if on the average people in an economy spend 65% of their income on goods and services and save 35%, the MPC for that economy is 0.65 and their MPS is 0.35. The MPS is how much of their income not spent, but saved. I hope this helps.
Georgina
Georgina explained it impeccably.
Thabiso
Consumption is defined as the usage of goods or services to satisfy human wants.
Bachabor Reply
What is Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC)?
Bachabor
What is Marginal Propensity to Consume(MPC)?
Bachabor
MPC means that when disposable increase, personal consumer spending increases also.
Thabiso
When debit and credit entries on the balance of payments are not balanced what is it called?
Thabiso Reply
unbalanced balance sheet
Warface
Thank you very much.
Thabiso
what is consumption
Ameer
the use of goods and services by households
Sonali
What is economics?
munna Reply
Economy is a subject which deals with the economic activities of human being such as production, consumption,and distribution
Arranolla
what is demand
ddamba Reply
is the desire backed by ability to buy a certain commodity at given price in given period of time.
Kalyango
yes
Raj
yas
Ashutos
willingness is a must
Sumaya
what's macroeconomics?
munna
Macroeconomics is the study of how society as a whole (an entire country's economy) chooses to allocate and use scarce resources to produce, consume and exchange in the market
Baaba
Thanks!
munna
what is economy
Ameer
How do you distinguish leading indicators from coincident indicators to lagging indicators?
Thabiso Reply
What is externalities and environmental taxation
Ganiyu Reply
environmental taxes are kind of economics instruments to adress environmental problems.
Swapnil
What is the reason behind present increasing interest rate in Argentina? Why its currency is devaluating?
Saujanya
Due to lot of money supply
Arranolla
Due to supply of money...when money supply is raise,interest rate decreases but when it's cut or decrease ,it increases interest rate.So in Argentina,with regards to money supply,interest rate will only increase when money supply decreases which in turn with higher interest rate devalue currency.
Emmanuel

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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