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This report summarizes work done as part of Rice University's VIGRE program. VIGRE is a program of Vertically Integrated Grants for Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences under the direction of the National Science Foundation. A PFUG is a group of Postdocs, Faculty, Undergraduates and Graduate students formed round the study of a common problem. This module describes how one can embed hyperlinks into a LaTeX document that will be translated into Connexions mark-up.


This small template is designed to illustrate one way to embed hyperlinks in your LaTeX document in a way that Connexions will readily translate.This requires use of the html package; you might need to downloadhtml.sty and supporting .styfiles. Details are addressed in "Downloading the html.sty file" below. The popular alternative, hyperref.sty, is not presentlysupported by the LaTeX-to-Connexions translator. Alternatively, you can embed links manually in Connexions once youhave imported your document. You might well find this manual route to be rather simpler at present.

For general advice about LaTeX-to-Connexions translations, see the accompanying Connexions module .

The \htmladdnormallink and \htmladdnormallinkfootcommands allow you to embed links in your LaTeX document.For example, the command

 \htmladdnormallink{Rice website}{http://www.rice.edu}

adds a link to the Rice university website. The first argument to the command \htmladdnormallinkwill be printed as text, whereas the second is the web address (URL) itself.Thus, the command shown above displays as: Rice website .

In some cases you might like to also include the URL itself as the first argument, to get a link such as


which displays as: (External Link) . If you want the link to appear in the LaTeX document, the\htmladdnormallinkfoot command adds the URL as a footnote.For example,

 \htmladdnormallinkfoot{Rice website}{http://www.rice.edu}

produces the output: Rice website . The Connexions translator treats \htmladdnormallinkand \htmladdnormallinkfoot identically.

A word of caution

One must beware of one complication: if the URL contains characters that have special meaning in LaTeX, then you can get run into frustrating errors.For example, if you wish to link to the page http://cnx.org/join_form ,the underscore can cause trouble.

 \htmladdnormallink{http://cnx.org/join_form}{http://cnx.org/join_form}  % error!

will give an error due to the underscore in the first argument . (The underscore in the second argument, the link itself, is fine.)You can get around this problem by simply using normal next for the first argument,

 \htmladdnormallink{Join Connexions}{http://cnx.org/join_form}

which appears as: Join Connexions .

Note that the footnote version, htmladdnormallinkfoot, does not perform well for URLs that contain special characters.For example,

 \htmladdnormallinkfoot{Join Connexions}{http://cnx.org/join_form}  % error!

causes an error despite the absence of problematic characters in the first argument.

Downloading the html.sty file

In drafting this guide, we experimented with several versions of html.sty.

First, we worked with version 95.1, which is available from, for example, this link . This version is easy to work with, but it does not actually embed clickablelinks in your LaTeX output; the links will show up properly in the Connexions translation.

If you want clickable links in your LaTeX document as well as Connexions, you will need a more recent version of html.sty. We tested with version 1.39 (which, counterintuitively, is newer than version 95.1). You can download this version from this link . This version requires a number of subordinate files that might not be includedin your LaTeX installation. You can find most or all of these packages in the oberdiekbundle on the Comphensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN); follow this link and download the entire bundle.

Which version of html.sty should you use?Try version 1.39 first; if it fails, then start downloading the missing packages, or just use version 95.1.

Preparing your latex file for import

When you create the .zip file that contains your LaTeX source,graphics, and bibliography files, be sure to include the html.sty file. If this file is missing, the Connexions translator will fail toconvert your file with minimal details about the error. (Note that if you use html.styversion 1.39, you do not need to include the subordinate .styfiles referred to in the previous section.)


We thank Jonathan Emmons and Brian West for their advice concerning conversion of LaTeX hyperlinks into Connexions.

This Connexions module describes work conducted as part of Rice University's VIGRE program, supported by National Science Foundationgrant DMS–0739420.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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