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Central and northern asia

Back to Central and Northern Asia: 300 to 201 B.C.

Bactria, astride the Hindu Kush and making up the northern part of present day Afghanistan, was ruled by Greek kings as remnants of Alexander's empire, and the country allowed Indian, Chinese, Iranian and Greek cultures to meet and intertwine. For the next two or three hundred years this was the hub of the east-west Ecumene, even though the Yue-chi destroyed the political unity of the Kingdom of Bactria. (Ref. 139 ) This take-over was part of a new turmoil which arose in central Asia about 130 B.C. as Huns from far eastern central Asia (perhaps Mongolia) started to push the Yue-chi (Tocharians) westward and they in turn chased a few remaining Scythians beyond the Jaxartes River

This classical view of one people "chasing" or "driving" another ahead of them is not accepted by the scholarly Maenchen-Helfen (Ref. 127 ) who believes the migrations took place for other reasons
. The Scythians, in turn, headed southward and destroyed the Greco-Bactrian kingdom just mentioned, on their way to the Punjab of India, with the Yue-chi following later in about 100 B.C. via northern Afghanistan.

The Huns just mentioned were chiefly the Hsuing-nu, under Chief Modok, and they soon dominated not only Mongolia but the Indo-European oasis statelets of Chinese Turkestan as well. Armor called "chia" was worn at least by the nobles in the Hsuing-nu army.

The word may mean "hide armor" but in graves at Noin Ula, Mongolia and Tuva, Siberia armor made of iron scales attached to fabric has been found dating to this century. Bronze, iron and leather were probably all used. After the conquest of Tuva, the Hsuing-nu population, which was already racially mixed, became even more Europoid

"Europoid" is a term used by Soviet anthropologists to indicate "non-Mongoloid"
. (Ref. 127 )

The Chinese ruler, Wu-Ti, spent the resources and energies of China for eighteen years in great campaigns against the Hsuing-nu and they were finally driven out of Inner Mongolia, Kansu and Chinese Turkestan. Ferghana, west of the Tarim Basin was the homeland of "heavenly horses" which the Chinese felt they had to have in their cavalry to counteract the agile ponies of the Hsuing-nu and other raiding - nomads. At the end of the century Wu-Ti sent armies to subdue the nomads of Sinkiang and go through this area to get the horses. A Chinese explorer had reached this Ferghana Valley in 128 B.C. and a military garrison had been established by 101 B.C. The western edge of the arid Tarim Basin was the source of jade for the Chinese carvers. Farther west, the Parthians had extended their empire south and east to take in part of Khurasan and the edge of the Hindu Kush. The Bactrian camel, in this and adjacent centuries, served all the barbarians from the Great Wall of China to the Crimea as pack and riding animals. (Ref. 139 , 101 , 8 , 127 )

Forward to Central and Northern Asia: 100 to 0 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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