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Central and northern asia

Back to Central and Northern Asia: 300 to 201 B.C.

Bactria, astride the Hindu Kush and making up the northern part of present day Afghanistan, was ruled by Greek kings as remnants of Alexander's empire, and the country allowed Indian, Chinese, Iranian and Greek cultures to meet and intertwine. For the next two or three hundred years this was the hub of the east-west Ecumene, even though the Yue-chi destroyed the political unity of the Kingdom of Bactria. (Ref. 139 ) This take-over was part of a new turmoil which arose in central Asia about 130 B.C. as Huns from far eastern central Asia (perhaps Mongolia) started to push the Yue-chi (Tocharians) westward and they in turn chased a few remaining Scythians beyond the Jaxartes River

This classical view of one people "chasing" or "driving" another ahead of them is not accepted by the scholarly Maenchen-Helfen (Ref. 127 ) who believes the migrations took place for other reasons
. The Scythians, in turn, headed southward and destroyed the Greco-Bactrian kingdom just mentioned, on their way to the Punjab of India, with the Yue-chi following later in about 100 B.C. via northern Afghanistan.

The Huns just mentioned were chiefly the Hsuing-nu, under Chief Modok, and they soon dominated not only Mongolia but the Indo-European oasis statelets of Chinese Turkestan as well. Armor called "chia" was worn at least by the nobles in the Hsuing-nu army.

The word may mean "hide armor" but in graves at Noin Ula, Mongolia and Tuva, Siberia armor made of iron scales attached to fabric has been found dating to this century. Bronze, iron and leather were probably all used. After the conquest of Tuva, the Hsuing-nu population, which was already racially mixed, became even more Europoid

"Europoid" is a term used by Soviet anthropologists to indicate "non-Mongoloid"
. (Ref. 127 )

The Chinese ruler, Wu-Ti, spent the resources and energies of China for eighteen years in great campaigns against the Hsuing-nu and they were finally driven out of Inner Mongolia, Kansu and Chinese Turkestan. Ferghana, west of the Tarim Basin was the homeland of "heavenly horses" which the Chinese felt they had to have in their cavalry to counteract the agile ponies of the Hsuing-nu and other raiding - nomads. At the end of the century Wu-Ti sent armies to subdue the nomads of Sinkiang and go through this area to get the horses. A Chinese explorer had reached this Ferghana Valley in 128 B.C. and a military garrison had been established by 101 B.C. The western edge of the arid Tarim Basin was the source of jade for the Chinese carvers. Farther west, the Parthians had extended their empire south and east to take in part of Khurasan and the edge of the Hindu Kush. The Bactrian camel, in this and adjacent centuries, served all the barbarians from the Great Wall of China to the Crimea as pack and riding animals. (Ref. 139 , 101 , 8 , 127 )

Forward to Central and Northern Asia: 100 to 0 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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