# 13.3 Mirrors  (Page 3/4)

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We use a dashed line to indicate that the image is virtual.

## Spherical mirrors

The second class of mirrors that we will look at are spherical mirrors. These mirrors are called spherical mirrors because if you take a sphere and cut it as shown in [link] and then polish the inside of one and the outside of the other, you will get a concave mirror and convex mirror as shown. These two mirrors will be studied in detail.

The centre of curvature is the point at the centre of the sphere and describes how big the sphere is.

## Concave mirrors

The first type of curved mirror we will study are concave mirrors. Concave mirrors have the shape shown in [link] . As with a plane mirror, the principal axis is a line that is perpendicular to the centre of the mirror.

If you think of light reflecting off a concave mirror, you will immediately see that things will look very different compared to a plane mirror. The easiest way to understand what will happen is to draw a ray diagram and work out where the images will form. Once we have done that it is easy to see what properties the image has.

First we need to define a very important characteristic of the mirror. We have seen that the centre of curvature is the centre of the sphere from which the mirror is cut. We then define that a distance that is half-way between the centre of curvature and the mirror on the principal axis. This point is known as the focal point and the distance from the focal point to the mirror is known as the focal length (symbol $f$ ). Since the focal point is the midpoint of the line segment joining the vertex and the center of curvature, the focal length would be one-half the radius of curvature. This fact can come in very handy, remember if you know one then you know the other!

Focal Point

The focal point of a mirror is the midpoint of a line segment joining the vertex and the centre of curvature. It is the position at which all parallel rays are focussed.

Why are we making such a big deal about this point we call the focal point? It has an important property we will use often. A ray parallel to the principal axis hitting the mirror will always be reflected through the focal point. The focal point is the position at which all parallel rays are focussed .

From [link] , we see that the image created by a concave mirror is real and inverted, as compared to the virtual and erect image created by a plane mirror.

Real Image

A real image can be cast on a screen; it is inverted, and on the same side of the mirror as the object.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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