# 13.1 The first law of thermodynamics  (Page 6/9)

 Page 6 / 9

The first law of thermodynamics and the conservation of energy, as discussed in Conservation of Energy , are clearly related. How do they differ in the types of energy considered?

Heat transfer $Q$ and work done $W$ are always energy in transit, whereas internal energy $U$ is energy stored in a system. Give an example of each type of energy, and state specifically how it is either in transit or resides in a system.

How do heat transfer and internal energy differ? In particular, which can be stored as such in a system and which cannot?

If you run down some stairs and stop, what happens to your kinetic energy and your initial gravitational potential energy?

Give an explanation of how food energy (calories) can be viewed as molecular potential energy (consistent with the atomic and molecular definition of internal energy).

Identify the type of energy transferred to your body in each of the following as either internal energy, heat transfer, or doing work: (a) basking in sunlight; (b) eating food; (c) riding an elevator to a higher floor.

## Problems&Exercises

What is the change in internal energy of a car if you put 12.0 gal of gasoline into its tank? The energy content of gasoline is $1\text{.}3×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J/gal}$ . All other factors, such as the car’s temperature, are constant.

$1\text{.}6×{\text{10}}^{9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

How much heat transfer occurs from a system, if its internal energy decreased by 150 J while it was doing 30.0 J of work?

A system does $1\text{.}\text{80}×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of work while $7\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of heat transfer occurs to the environment. What is the change in internal energy of the system assuming no other changes (such as in temperature or by the addition of fuel)?

$-9\text{.}\text{30}×{\text{10}}^{8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

What is the change in internal energy of a system which does $4\text{.}\text{50}×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of work while $3\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of heat transfer occurs into the system, and $8\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ of heat transfer occurs to the environment?

Suppose a woman does 500 J of work and 9500 J of heat transfer occurs into the environment in the process. (a) What is the decrease in her internal energy, assuming no change in temperature or consumption of food? (That is, there is no other energy transfer.) (b) What is her efficiency?

(a) $-1\text{.}0×{\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ , or $-2\text{.}\text{39 kcal}$

(b) 5.00%

(a) How much food energy will a man metabolize in the process of doing 35.0 kJ of work with an efficiency of 5.00%? (b) How much heat transfer occurs to the environment to keep his temperature constant? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for thermodynamics found in Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics .

(a) What is the average metabolic rate in watts of a man who metabolizes 10,500 kJ of food energy in one day? (b) What is the maximum amount of work in joules he can do without breaking down fat, assuming a maximum efficiency of 20.0%? (c) Compare his work output with the daily output of a 187-W (0.250-horsepower) motor.

(a) 122 W

(b) $2\text{.}\text{10}×{\text{10}}^{6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

(c) Work done by the motor is $1\text{.}\text{61}×{\text{10}}^{7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ ;thus the motor produces 7.67 times the work done by the man

(a) How long will the energy in a 1470-kJ (350-kcal) cup of yogurt last in a woman doing work at the rate of 150 W with an efficiency of 20.0% (such as in leisurely climbing stairs)? (b) Does the time found in part (a) imply that it is easy to consume more food energy than you can reasonably expect to work off with exercise?

(a) A woman climbing the Washington Monument metabolizes $6\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kJ}$ of food energy. If her efficiency is 18.0%, how much heat transfer occurs to the environment to keep her temperature constant? (b) Discuss the amount of heat transfer found in (a). Is it consistent with the fact that you quickly warm up when exercising?

(a) 492 kJ

(b) This amount of heat is consistent with the fact that you warm quickly when exercising. Since the body is inefficient, the excess heat produced must be dissipated through sweating, breathing, etc.

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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s.
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Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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China
Cied
types of nano material
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Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
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preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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