<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Key concepts and summary

The transition metals are elements with partially filled d orbitals, located in the d -block of the periodic table. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. The type of chemistry used in the isolation of the elements from their ores depends upon the concentration of the element in its ore and the difficulty of reducing ions of the elements to the metals. Metals that are more active are more difficult to reduce.

Transition metals exhibit chemical behavior typical of metals. For example, they oxidize in air upon heating and react with elemental halogens to form halides. Those elements that lie above hydrogen in the activity series react with acids, producing salts and hydrogen gas. Oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of transition metal compounds in low oxidation states are basic. Halides and other salts are generally stable in water, although oxygen must be excluded in some cases. Most transition metals form a variety of stable oxidation states, allowing them to demonstrate a wide range of chemical reactivity.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements:

(a) Sc

(b) Ti

(c) Cr

(d) Fe

(e) Ru

(a) Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 1 ; (b) Ti: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 2 ; (c) Cr: [Ar]4 s 1 3 d 5 ; (d) Fe: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 6 ; (e) Ru: [Kr]5 s 2 4 d 6

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its ions:

(a) Ti

(b) Ti 2+

(c) Ti 3+

(d) Ti 4+

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its 3+ ions:

(a) La

(b) Sm

(c) Lu

(a) La: [Xe]6 s 2 5 d 1 , La 3+ : [Xe]; (b) Sm: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 6 , Sm 3+ : [Xe]4 f 5 ; (c) Lu: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 1 , Lu 3+ : [Xe]4 f 14

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Why are the lanthanoid elements not found in nature in their elemental forms?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following elements is most likely to be used to prepare La by the reduction of La 2 O 3 : Al, C, or Fe? Why?

Al is used because it is the strongest reducing agent and the only option listed that can provide sufficient driving force to convert La(III) into La.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent: VO 4 3 , CrO 4 2− , or MnO 4 ?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following elements is most likely to form an oxide with the formula MO 3 : Zr, Nb, or Mo?

Mo

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

The following reactions all occur in a blast furnace. Which of these are redox reactions?

(a) 3Fe 2 O 3 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 2Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(b) Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 3FeO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(c) FeO ( s ) + CO ( g ) Fe ( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

(d) C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g )

(e) C ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2CO ( g )

(f) CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(g) CaO ( s ) + SiO 2 ( s ) CaSiO 3 ( l )

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Why is the formation of slag useful during the smelting of iron?

The CaSiO 3 slag is less dense than the molten iron, so it can easily be separated. Also, the floating slag layer creates a barrier that prevents the molten iron from exposure to O 2 , which would oxidize the Fe back to Fe 2 O 3 .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Would you expect an aqueous manganese(VII) oxide solution to have a pH greater or less than 7.0? Justify your answer.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
ifunanya Reply
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Kyndall Reply
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Gabe Reply
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Ut austin - principles of chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask