Laminar flow is characterized by smooth flow of the fluid in layers that do not mix.
Turbulence is characterized by eddies and swirls that mix layers of fluid together.
Fluid viscosity
$\eta $ is due to friction within a fluid. Representative values are given in
[link] . Viscosity has units of
$({\text{N/m}}^{2})\text{s}$ or
$\text{Pa}\cdot \text{s}$ .
Flow is proportional to pressure difference and inversely proportional to resistance:
$Q=\frac{{P}_{2}-{P}_{1}}{R}.$
For laminar flow in a tube, Poiseuille’s law for resistance states that
$R=\frac{8\eta l}{{\mathrm{\pi r}}^{4}}.$
Poiseuille’s law for flow in a tube is
$Q=\frac{({P}_{2}-{P}_{1})\pi {r}^{4}}{8\eta l}.$
The pressure drop caused by flow and resistance is given by
${P}_{2}-{P}_{1}=RQ.$
Conceptual questions
Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature—that is, how might increased temperature reduce the effects of cohesive forces in a liquid? Also explain why the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature—that is, how does increased gas temperature create more collisions between atoms and molecules?
When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it may be best to stay near the middle. Explain why.
(a) Calculate the retarding force due to the viscosity of the air layer between a cart and a level air track given the following information—air temperature is
$\text{20\xba C}$ , the cart is moving at 0.400 m/s, its surface area is
$2\text{.}\text{50}\times {\text{10}}^{\mathrm{-2}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ , and the thickness of the air layer is
$6.00\times {\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ . (b) What is the ratio of this force to the weight of the 0.300-kg cart?
What force is needed to pull one microscope slide over another at a speed of 1.00 cm/s, if there is a 0.500-mm-thick layer of
$\text{20\xba C}$ water between them and the contact area is
$8.00\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{2}$ ?
A glucose solution being administered with an IV has a flow rate of
$4\text{.}\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{3}\text{/min}$ . What will the new flow rate be if the glucose is replaced by whole blood having the same density but a viscosity 2.50 times that of the glucose? All other factors remain constant.
The pressure drop along a length of artery is 100 Pa, the radius is 10 mm, and the flow is laminar. The average speed of the blood is 15 mm/s. (a) What is the net force on the blood in this section of artery? (b) What is the power expended maintaining the flow?
A small artery has a length of
$1\text{.}1\times {\text{10}}^{-3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ and a radius of
$2.5\times {\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$ . If the pressure drop across the artery is 1.3 kPa, what is the flow rate through the artery? (Assume that the temperature is
$\text{37\xba C}$ .)
Fluid originally flows through a tube at a rate of
$\text{100}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{3}\text{/s}$ . To illustrate the sensitivity of flow rate to various factors, calculate the new flow rate for the following changes with all other factors remaining the same as in the original conditions. (a) Pressure difference increases by a factor of 1.50. (b) A new fluid with 3.00 times greater viscosity is substituted. (c) The tube is replaced by one having 4.00 times the length. (d) Another tube is used with a radius 0.100 times the original. (e) Yet another tube is substituted with a radius 0.100 times the original and half the length,
and the pressure difference is increased by a factor of 1.50.
Find the following for path D in [link] : (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is
density=mass/volume
Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury:
Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000
mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg
density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
Sobirjon
the latter is true
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
Lila
plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
how to solve this... a car is heading north then smoothly made a westward turn during the travel the speed of the car remains constant at 1.5km/h what is the acceleration of the car? the total travel time of the car as it smoothly changed its direction is 15 minutes
Vann
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
Ben
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
Luis
who can help me with a relative density question
Lila
1cm3 sample of tin lead alloy has mass 8.5g.the relative density of tin is 7.3 and that of lead is 11.3.calculate the percentage by weight of tin in the alloy. assuming that there is no change of volume when the metals formed the alloy
Lila
morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Lila
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
Sobirjon
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Ben
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
u are all wlc just ask your question anybody. can answer
Ajayi
good morning ppl
ABDUL
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
Nuru
yea you are right
Badmus
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
Thomas
I guess that's it
Thomas
later people
Thomas
mathematics is everywhere
Anand
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
Nuru
A hydrometer of mass 0.15kg and uniform cross sectional area of 0.0025m2 displaced in water of density 1000kg/m3.what depth will the hydrometer sink
Lila
16.66 meters?
Darshik
16.71m2
aways
,i have a question of let me give answer
aways
the mass is stretched a distance of 8cm and held
what is the potential energy?
quick answer
aways
oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door