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Art connection

 Illustration shows a cross-section of soil layers, or horizons. The top layer, from zero to two inches, is the O horizon. The O horizon is a rich, deep brown color. From two to ten inches is the A horizon. This layer is slightly lighter in color than the O horizon, and extensive root systems are visible. From ten to thirty inches is the B horizon. The B horizon is reddish brown. Longer roots extend to the bottom of this layer. The C  horizon extends from 30 to 48 inches. This layer is rocky and devoid of roots.
This soil profile shows the different soil layers (O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, and C horizon) found in typical soils. (credit: modification of work by USDA)

Which horizon is considered the topsoil, and which is considered the subsoil?

Some soils may have additional layers, or lack one of these layers. The thickness of the layers is also variable, and depends on the factors that influence soil formation. In general, immature soils may have O, A, and C horizons, whereas mature soils may display all of these, plus additional layers ( [link] ).

 In the photo, soil has been cut away to reveal the soil profile. The O horizon is at the soil surface and is a rich black color. The brown A horizon starts beneath the O horizon and extends to about two-and-a-half feet beneath the surface. The B horizon is reddish brown and extends from the bottom of the A horizon to about two feet deep. The C horizon extends from the bottom of the B horizon to the bottom of the photo at a depth of four feet. The C horizon is light brown and has a coarser consistency than the A or B horizons.
The San Joaquin soil profile has an O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, and C horizon. (credit: modification of work by USDA)

Career connections

Soil scientist

A soil scientist studies the biological components, physical and chemical properties, distribution, formation, and morphology of soils. Soil scientists need to have a strong background in physical and life sciences, plus a foundation in mathematics. They may work for federal or state agencies, academia, or the private sector. Their work may involve collecting data, carrying out research, interpreting results, inspecting soils, conducting soil surveys, and recommending soil management programs.

 Photo shows a man standing next to a wall of soil in a pit that is as deep as he is tall.
This soil scientist is studying the horizons and composition of soil at a research site. (credit: USDA)

Many soil scientists work both in an office and in the field. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): “a soil scientist needs good observation skills to analyze and determine the characteristics of different types of soils. Soil types are complex and the geographical areas a soil scientist may survey are varied. Aerial photos or various satellite images are often used to research the areas. Computer skills and geographic information systems (GIS) help the scientist to analyze the multiple facets of geomorphology, topography, vegetation, and climate to discover the patterns left on the landscape.” National Resources Conservation Service / United States Department of Agriculture. “Careers in Soil Science.” http://soils.usda.gov/education/facts/careers.html Soil scientists play a key role in understanding the soil’s past, analyzing present conditions, and making recommendations for future soil-related practices.

Section summary

Plants obtain mineral nutrients from the soil. Soil is the outer loose layer that covers the surface of Earth. Soil quality depends on the chemical composition of the soil, the topography, the presence of living organisms, the climate, and time. Agricultural practice and history may also modify the characteristics and fertility of soil. Soil consists of four major components: 1) inorganic mineral matter, 2) organic matter, 3) water and air, and 4) living matter. The organic material of soil is made of humus, which improves soil structure and provides water and minerals. Soil inorganic material consists of rock slowly broken down into smaller particles that vary in size, such as sand, silt, and loam.

Soil formation results from a combination of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Soil is not homogenous because its formation results in the production of layers called a soil profile. Factors that affect soil formation include: parent material, climate, topography, biological factors, and time. Soils are classified based on their horizons, soil particle size, and proportions. Most soils have four distinct horizons: O, A, B, and C.

Art connections

[link] Soil compaction can result when soil is compressed by heavy machinery or even foot traffic. How might this compaction change the soil composition?

[link] The air content of the soil decreases.

[link] Which horizon is considered the topsoil, and which is considered the subsoil?

[link] The A horizon is the topsoil, and the B horizon is subsoil.

Questions & Answers

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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of biology ii. OpenStax CNX. Jan 16, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11958/1.1
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