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The first possibility is to leave the natural monopoly alone. In this case, the monopoly will follow its normal approach to maximizing profits. It determines the quantity where MR = MC, which happens at point P at a quantity of 4. The firm then looks to point A on the demand curve to find that it can charge a price of 9.3 for that profit-maximizing quantity. Since the price is above the average cost curve, the natural monopoly would earn economic profits.

A second outcome arises if antitrust authorities decide to divide the company, so that the new firms can compete. As a simple example, imagine that the company is cut in half. Thus, instead of one large firm producing a quantity of 4, two half-size firms each produce a quantity of 2. Because of the declining average cost curve (AC), the average cost of production for each of the half-size companies each producing 2, as shown at point B, would be 9.75, while the average cost of production for a larger firm producing 4 would only be 7.75. Thus, the economy would become less productively efficient, since the good is being produced at a higher average cost. In a situation with a downward-sloping average cost curve, two smaller firms will always have higher average costs of production than one larger firm for any quantity of total output. In addition, the antitrust authorities must worry that splitting the natural monopoly into pieces may be only the start of their problems. If one of the two firms grows larger than the other, it will have lower average costs and may be able to drive its competitor out of the market. Alternatively, two firms in a market may discover subtle ways of coordinating their behavior and keeping prices high. Either way, the result will not be the greater competition that was desired.

A third alternative is that regulators may decide to set prices and quantities produced for this industry. The regulators will try to choose a point along the market demand curve that benefits both consumers and the broader social interest. Point C illustrates one tempting choice: the regulator requires that the firm produce the quantity of output where marginal cost crosses the demand curve at an output of 8, and charge the price of 3.5, which is equal to marginal cost    at that point. This rule is appealing because it requires price to be set equal to marginal cost, which is what would occur in a perfectly competitive market, and it would assure consumers a higher quantity and lower price than at the monopoly choice A. In fact, efficient allocation of resources would occur at point C, since the value to the consumers of the last unit bought and sold in this market is equal to the marginal cost of producing it.

Attempting to bring about point C through force of regulation, however, runs into a severe difficulty. At point C, with an output of 8, a price of 3.5 is below the average cost of production, which is 5.7, and so if the firm charges a price of 3.5, it will be suffering losses. Unless the regulators or the government offer the firm an ongoing public subsidy (and there are numerous political problems with that option), the firm will lose money and go out of business.

Questions & Answers

what is deadweightloss
francis Reply
hi
Bless
deadweight loss is the allocative inefficiency.... when the equilibrium for good or services is not achived.
Azhar
hi
Azhar
hi
azaloo
hii too
Jackson
Hello
Micah
how are you all?
Azhar
I am here been sick but here
Amanda
may you get well soon Amanda
Azhar
What are the implications of classical Economics?
Micah
What are the implications of classical Economics school of thought?
Micah
Dead weight loss is an inefficient allocation of resources, especially through taxation or restrictions.
Ezeigwe
hello please what is localization of industry
Bless Reply
price is tantalisingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit Reply
Price is tantalizingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit
what is scarcity
Sharkdanny Reply
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.
Abdirahin
what is meant by an abnormal demand curve?
Samuel Reply
what is microeconomics
Berun Reply
micronomics can be define as that part of Economics that deals with small scale business. e.g. House hold stuff
Amodu
Micro economics is the study of individuals, households and firms' behavior un decision making and allocation of resources
Christian
what is underemployment
Xornam Reply
It is the situation where the available resources are not used to it optimum
Bless
state the law of diminishing returns
Bless
Bless, the law of diminishing returns state that one point, adding a single worker will result in a decrease of production.
David
it is a situation where by people are employ but work under their potential
Akua
David please go into details kk
Bless
Akua pls when you say people alone? what about facilities?
Bless
Definition of underemployment. 1 : the condition in which people in a labor force are employed at less than full-time or regular jobs or at jobs inadequate with respect to their training or economic needs
Boahen
OK that is good
Set
I am new here
Taimoor
what does law of demand says?
Samuel
with a diagram explain fairy elastic demand
Samuel
comprehensive answer for public finance is the money that a government has available to spend from taxes and borrowing.
wilflay Reply
what then comprises of public opinion
Raphael
what is macro economics
SAGAR Reply
Definition of demand and supply
oyebanji Reply
whatd is name of economic scholars defined classic view
Ahmed Reply
Whole Classical view is based on J.B.Say's Law of Marker demand
abhinav
the science of economic has both positive and normative aspect,discuss.
Mkiwa Reply
simplified definition of a production possibility curve
Rose Reply
This is call the PFF curve .
Sumowoui
A country can produce lots of guns, or lots of butter. But, they cannot produce lots of both. The solution to this is called comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is that different countrys specialize in different areas, and then trade.
David
this is call the. pff curve
Murali
It is defind as a curve which shows various combinations of two goods produced with given resources
Shahid
it means a country with a given level of technology and available resources can produce two goods only if the technology or resources are efficiently utilize. In d process of utilization you will produce one goods more than the other that is why the downward slope of a PPC curve indicates opp cost
Odion
Shows all the possible combination of two goods or services
Christian
it is d intersection of two different variables
Odion Reply
what is equilibrium ?
James Reply
the quantity of demanded for a good is equal to its quantity supplied. Qdd=Qss
Podol
in economics, an equilibrium is situation in which : 1. qd=qd 2.no tendency or quantity to change 3. the market just clears without surplus/shortage
Podol
it is the intersection between two variables. Because you did not specify the equilibrium you talking about is it consumer or market forces
Odion
A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced
Preeti
Equilibrium refers to the economic situation where supply and demand for a certain goods and services in market is equal, which represents a stable market price to purchase and sell.
Preeti
curve d and s intersection
Podol
yes jahan par demand and supply intersect karte hai wahi par equilibrium hota hai
Preeti
Equilibrium is when two variables intersect.
Akolo
equilibrium is a point where demand and supply meet with out shortages or surplus.
Sumowoui
Hmm scholars
Odion
am new here I want to know more about economics
Mansur
Micro and macro
Mansur
What do you think?
Yussif
can someone explain demand and supply
Mansur
demand is a quantity of a commodity which could be offer for sales at a particular price. !!!!...And supply is also a quantity of a commodity which could be brought by a consumer at a given price and time.
Rosemary
m also new want to know more about economics
Gift
kk
Rosemary
txup rose
Gift
hi
Rosemary
u gud
Gift
yes nd u? by d way who are u!!
Rosemary
m gift wer u from?
Gift
Ibadan
Rosemary
nd u
Rosemary
wer s the place o wic country?
Gift
Nigeria
Rosemary
lusaka
Gift
ooooh
Rosemary
wats yo username?
Gift
RaviKumar
Ravi

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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