<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • Understand the rules of vector addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
  • Apply graphical methods of vector addition and subtraction to determine the displacement of moving objects.
Some Hawaiian Islands like Kauai Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii are shown. On the scale map of Hawaiian Islands the path of a journey is shown moving from Hawaii to Molokai. The path of the journey is turning at different angles and finally reaching its destination. The displacement of the journey is shown with the help of a straight line connecting its starting point and the destination.
Displacement can be determined graphically using a scale map, such as this one of the Hawaiian Islands. A journey from Hawai’i to Moloka’i has a number of legs, or journey segments. These segments can be added graphically with a ruler to determine the total two-dimensional displacement of the journey. (credit: US Geological Survey)

Vectors in two dimensions

A vector    is a quantity that has magnitude and direction. Displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force, for example, are all vectors. In one-dimensional, or straight-line, motion, the direction of a vector can be given simply by a plus or minus sign. In two dimensions (2-d), however, we specify the direction of a vector relative to some reference frame (i.e., coordinate system), using an arrow having length proportional to the vector’s magnitude and pointing in the direction of the vector.

[link] shows such a graphical representation of a vector , using as an example the total displacement for the person walking in a city considered in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction . We shall use the notation that a boldface symbol, such as D size 12{D} {} , stands for a vector. Its magnitude is represented by the symbol in italics, D size 12{D} {} , and its direction by θ size 12{θ} {} .

Vectors in this text

In this text, we will represent a vector with a boldface variable. For example, we will represent the quantity force with the vector F size 12{F} {} , which has both magnitude and direction. The magnitude of the vector will be represented by a variable in italics, such as F size 12{F} {} , and the direction of the variable will be given by an angle θ size 12{θ} {} .

A graph is shown. On the axes the scale is set to one block is equal to one unit. A helicopter starts moving from the origin at an angle of twenty nine point one degrees above the x axis. The current position of the helicopter is ten point three blocks along its line of motion. The destination of the helicopter is the point which is nine blocks in the positive x direction and five blocks in the positive y direction. The positive direction of the x axis is east and the positive direction of the y axis is north.
A person walks 9 blocks east and 5 blocks north. The displacement is 10.3 blocks at an angle 29 .1º size 12{"29" "." "1º"} {} north of east.
On a graph a vector is shown. It is inclined at an angle theta equal to twenty nine point one degrees above the positive x axis. A protractor is shown to the right of the x axis to measure the angle. A ruler is also shown parallel to the vector to measure its length. The ruler shows that the length of the vector is ten point three units.
To describe the resultant vector for the person walking in a city considered in [link] graphically, draw an arrow to represent the total displacement vector D size 12{D} {} . Using a protractor, draw a line at an angle θ size 12{θ} {} relative to the east-west axis. The length D size 12{D} {} of the arrow is proportional to the vector’s magnitude and is measured along the line with a ruler. In this example, the magnitude D size 12{D} {} of the vector is 10.3 units, and the direction θ size 12{θ} {} is 29.1º size 12{"29" "." 1 rSup { size 12{º} } } {} north of east.

Vector addition: head-to-tail method

The head-to-tail method    is a graphical way to add vectors, described in [link] below and in the steps following. The tail    of the vector is the starting point of the vector, and the head (or tip) of a vector is the final, pointed end of the arrow.

In part a, a vector of magnitude of nine units and making an angle of theta is equal to zero degrees is drawn from the origin and along the positive direction of x axis. In part b a vector of magnitude of nine units and making an angle of theta is equal to zero degree is drawn from the origin and along the positive direction of x axis. Then a vertical arrow from the head of the horizontal arrow is drawn. In part c a vector D of magnitude ten point three is drawn from the tail of the horizontal vector at an angle theta is equal to twenty nine point one degrees from the positive direction of x axis. The head of the vector D meets the head of the vertical vector. A scale is shown parallel to the vector D to measure its length. Also a protractor is shown to measure the inclination of the vectorD.
Head-to-Tail Method: The head-to-tail method of graphically adding vectors is illustrated for the two displacements of the person walking in a city considered in [link] . (a) Draw a vector representing the displacement to the east. (b) Draw a vector representing the displacement to the north. The tail of this vector should originate from the head of the first, east-pointing vector. (c) Draw a line from the tail of the east-pointing vector to the head of the north-pointing vector to form the sum or resultant vector     D size 12{A} {} . The length of the arrow D size 12{A} {} is proportional to the vector’s magnitude and is measured to be 10.3 units . Its direction, described as the angle with respect to the east (or horizontal axis) θ size 12{θ} {} is measured with a protractor to be 29 . size 12{"29" "." 1°} {} .

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Physics 110 at une. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11566/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Physics 110 at une' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask