<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Making connections: conservation of energy

Lenz’s law is a manifestation of the conservation of energy. The induced emf produces a current that opposes the change in flux, because a change in flux means a change in energy. Energy can enter or leave, but not instantaneously. Lenz’s law is a consequence. As the change begins, the law says induction opposes and, thus, slows the change. In fact, if the induced emf were in the same direction as the change in flux, there would be a positive feedback that would give us free energy from no apparent source—conservation of energy would be violated.

Calculating emf: how great is the induced emf?

Calculate the magnitude of the induced emf when the magnet in [link] (a) is thrust into the coil, given the following information: the single loop coil has a radius of 6.00 cm and the average value of B cos θ size 12{B"cos"θ} {} (this is given, since the bar magnet’s field is complex) increases from 0.0500 T to 0.250 T in 0.100 s.

Strategy

To find the magnitude of emf, we use Faraday’s law of induction as stated by emf = N Δ Φ Δ t , but without the minus sign that indicates direction:

emf = N Δ Φ Δ t .

Solution

We are given that N = 1 size 12{N=1} {} and Δ t = 0 . 100 s , but we must determine the change in flux Δ Φ size 12{ΔΦ} {} before we can find emf. Since the area of the loop is fixed, we see that

Δ Φ = Δ ( BA cos θ ) = A Δ ( B cos θ ). size 12{ΔΦ=Δ \( BA"cos"θ \) =AΔ \( B"cos"θ \) } {}

Now Δ ( B cos θ ) = 0 . 200 T size 12{Δ \( B"cos"θ \) =0 "." "200"`T} {} , since it was given that B cos θ size 12{B"cos"θ} {} changes from 0.0500 to 0.250 T. The area of the loop is A = πr 2 = ( 3 . 14 . . . ) ( 0 . 060 m ) 2 = 1 . 13 × 10 2 m 2 size 12{A=πr rSup { size 8{2} } = \( 3 "." "14" "." "." "." \) \( 0 "." "060"`m \) rSup { size 8{2} } =1 "." "13" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } `m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . Thus,

Δ Φ = ( 1.13 × 10 2 m 2 ) ( 0.200 T ). size 12{ΔΦ= \( 1 "." "13" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) \( 0 "." "200"" T" \) } {}

Entering the determined values into the expression for emf gives

Emf = N Δ Φ Δ t = ( 1.13 × 10 2 m 2 ) ( 0 . 200 T ) 0 . 100 s = 22 . 6 mV. size 12{E=N { {ΔΦ} over {Δt} } = { { \( 1 "." "13" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) \( 0 "." "200"" T" \) } over {0 "." "100"" s"} } ="22" "." 6" mV"} {}

Discussion

While this is an easily measured voltage, it is certainly not large enough for most practical applications. More loops in the coil, a stronger magnet, and faster movement make induction the practical source of voltages that it is.

Phet explorations: faraday's electromagnetic lab

Play with a bar magnet and coils to learn about Faraday's law. Move a bar magnet near one or two coils to make a light bulb glow. View the magnetic field lines. A meter shows the direction and magnitude of the current. View the magnetic field lines or use a meter to show the direction and magnitude of the current. You can also play with electromagnets, generators and transformers!

Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab

Section summary

  • Faraday’s law of induction states that the emf induced by a change in magnetic flux is
    emf = N Δ Φ Δ t size 12{"emf"= - N { {ΔΦ} over {Δt} } } {}

    when flux changes by Δ Φ size 12{ΔΦ} {} in a time Δ t size 12{Δt} {} .

  • If emf is induced in a coil, N is its number of turns.
  • The minus sign means that the emf creates a current I size 12{I} {} and magnetic field B size 12{B} {} that oppose the change in flux Δ Φ size 12{ΔΦ} {} —this opposition is known as Lenz’s law.

Conceptual questions

A person who works with large magnets sometimes places her head inside a strong field. She reports feeling dizzy as she quickly turns her head. How might this be associated with induction?

A particle accelerator sends high-velocity charged particles down an evacuated pipe. Explain how a coil of wire wrapped around the pipe could detect the passage of individual particles. Sketch a graph of the voltage output of the coil as a single particle passes through it.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask