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Liverworts

Liverworts (Marchantiophyta) may be viewed as the plants most closely related to the ancestor that moved to land. Liverworts have colonized many habitats on Earth and diversified to more than 6,000 existing species ( [link] a ). Some gametophytes form lobate green structures, as seen in [link] b . The shape is similar to the lobes of the liver and, hence, provides the origin of the common name given to the division.Openings that allow the movement of gases may be observed in liverworts. However, these are not stomata, because they do not actively open and close. The plant takes up water over its entire surface and has no cuticle to prevent desiccation.

 Illustration (a) shows a variety of liverworts, which all share a branched, leafy structure. Photo (b) shows a liverwort with lettuce-like leaves.
(a) A 1904 drawing of liverworts shows the variety of their forms. (b) A liverwort, Lunularia cruciata , displays its lobate, flat thallus. The organism in the photograph is in the gametophyte stage.

Hornworts

The hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) have colonized a variety of habitats on land, although they are never far from a source of moisture. There are about 100 described species of hornworts. The dominant phase of the life cycle of hornworts is the short, blue-green gametophyte. The sporophyte is the defining characteristic of the group. It is a long and narrow pipe-like structure that emerges from the parent gametophyte and maintains growth throughout the life of the plant ( [link] ).

 The base of the hornwort plant has a wrinkled appearance. A cluster of slender green stalks with brown tips grows from this wrinkled mass.
Hornworts grow a tall and slender sporophyte. (credit: modification of work by Jason Hollinger)

Stomata appear in the hornworts and are abundant on the sporophyte. Photosynthetic cells in the thallus contain a single chloroplast. Meristem cells at the base of the plant keep dividing and adding to its height. Many hornworts establish symbiotic relationships with cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen from the environment.

Mosses

More than 12,000 species of mosses have been catalogued. Their habitats vary from the tundra, where they are the main vegetation, to the understory of tropical forests. In the tundra, their shallow rhizoids allow them to fasten to a substrate without digging into the frozen soil. They slow down erosion, store moisture and soil nutrients, and provide shelter for small animals and food for larger herbivores, such as the musk ox. Mosses are very sensitive to air pollution and are used to monitor the quality of air. The sensitivity of mosses to copper salts makes these salts a common ingredient of compounds marketed to eliminate mosses in lawns ( [link] ).

 A close-up photo of green, feathery moss with many reddish brown sporophytes growing upwards. Each sporophyte has a goblet-shaped tip.
This green feathery gametophyte of the moss has reddish-brown sporophytes growing upward. (credit: "Lordgrunt"/Wikimedia Commons)

Mosses form diminutive gametophytes, which are the dominant phase of the lifecycle. Green, flat structures—resembling true leaves, but lacking vascular tissue—are attached in a spiral to a central stalk. The plants absorb water and nutrients directly through these leaf-like structures. Some primitive traits of green algae, such as flagellated sperm, are still present in mosses that are dependent on water for reproduction. Other features of mosses are clearly adaptations to dry land. For example, stomata are present on the stems of the sporophyte. Additionally, mosses are anchored to the substrate—whether it is soil, rock, or roof tiles—by multicellular rhizoids    . These structures are precursors of roots. They originate from the base of the gametophyte, but are not the major route for the absorption of water and minerals. The lack of a true root system explains why it is so easy to rip moss mats from a tree trunk. The moss lifecycle follows the pattern of alternation of generations as shown in [link] . The most familiar structure is the haploid gametophyte, which germinates from a haploid spore. The male gametophyte (the antheridium) produces many sperm, whereas the archegonium (the female gametophyte) forms a single egg. At fertilization, the sperm swims down the neck to the venter and unites with the egg inside the archegonium. The zygote, protected by the archegonium, divides and grows into a sporophyte, still attached by its foot to the gametophyte.

Questions & Answers

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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
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of graphene you mean?
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Bi 101 for lbcc ilearn campus. OpenStax CNX. Nov 28, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11593/1.1
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