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Template matching

Template matching involves comparing regions of an image to a template, using correlation algorithms to detect regions that are similar.  Correlation is similar to convolution but without flipping one of the signals.  For use in image processing, we must normalize the signals to account for variations of intensity in the image matrices, one for each color matrix (red, green, and blue).  Using the MATLAB function normxcorr2 , we are able to take a normalized 2-D cross-correlation of two images, with the regions most similar to the template in the picture returning the highest correlation values.

Examining a cross-correlation formula we see the similarity to convolution except neither image is flipped:

equation for cross convolution

In order to expand to two dimensions and normalize the correlation, we must use linear algebra. Since MATLAB allows us to convert images to 2-D matrices, three for a color image (the RGB values at each x,y coordinate pair), we can run a similar formula but use vectors instead of points. The normalization factor on the bottom scales the values so they do not vary based on the high intensities of individual colors in parts of the image. Without this correction, a bright sky would always have high correlation with the image just because it is bright.

equation for matlab normxcorr

Thus, using a stop sign template we can attempt to match it with an image and extract the location of highest correlation. At this point, we can either check it against a threshold value to determine if it matches, or do further analysis on regions of the image.

Edge detection

Edge detection involves analyzing changes in intensity to determine the edges in an image, and then further analysis can be performed on certain bounded regions of the image. Given an colored image, MATLAB has the capability to convert it to a 2-D grayscale image using rgb2gray . Then, we can capitalize on the changes in intensity to detect edges. The MATLAB algorithm we chose to accomplish this is the Sobel method, which approximated the gradient of the image using a convolution with the following matrices.

equation for the edge detection algorithm

The regions with the highest changes in intensity are the most likely to be edges in an image. Given the probable edges, we can use the function bwareaopen to remove any bounded regions that are too small to be of use in our image processing. Left with only large boundaries, we can now test each one for various features such as color, shape, area, etc. to determine if it is a street sign.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2011. OpenStax CNX. Jun 18, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11431/1.1
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