# 1.9 Heat and temperature

 Page 1 / 2

## Heat and temperature

Heat is a type of energy – the energy of the movement of particles. Temperature is the measure of how fast the molecules are moving

How do we measure temperature?

We use a thermometer that consists of a glass tube filled with a liquid such as mercury, which expands when it is warmed.

What is absolute zero ?

The lowest temperature possible, at which it becomes impossible for molecules or atoms to move. This occurs at –273,15 ºC or at 0 on the Kelvin scale. This low temperature was measured in a Finnish laboratory.

Find out what the Kelvin scale is.

You probably know that temperature can be measured on a Celsius scale or on a Fahrenheit scale. Temperatures used to be measured in Fahrenheit, so you may still find appliances that are marked in Fahrenheit, but most appliances nowadays use the Celsius scale.

How do you convert Fahrenheit to Celsius?

Subtract 32 and then divide by 9 and multiply by 5

F to C therefore is (-32 ÷ 9 x 5)

For Celsius to Fahrenheit it is:

÷ 5 x 9 + 32

## To understand temperature conversions [lo 2.4]

Assignment 1:

Do you know the following?

1. The highest temperature ever recorded on earth is 720 million ºF. It was recorded during nuclear fusion, in the USA.

What would this be in ºC?

2. The highest air temperature has been measured in Libya, at 58 ºC.

What is this in ºF?

3. The lowest air temperature was recorded in Antarctica when the thernometer registered –190 ºF.

What is this in ºC?

Try: www.convert-me.com

Assessment of Temperature Conversions

Were you able to do the conversions?

[LO 2.4]

Heat Transfer

## To determine terms and concepts involved with the transfer of heat [lo 2.1, lo 2.3, lo 2.4]

Assignment 1:

Complete:

There are different terms for describing the transfer of heat:

• CONVECTION
• CONDUCTION

Assessment of Terms

Were you able to identify the terms?

[LO 2.4]

Heat and Water

Water has a remarkable capacity for retaining heat.

Much energy is needed for the temperature of water to increase or decrease by 1 ºC.

Various factors influence heat retention by water:

• Water is a liquid.
• Water is transparent and light beams can penetrate to a depth of 20 m.
• A mass of water has waves and currents and vertical movement that can distribute heat.

If you compare the heat retention capacity of the land and the oceans, you will realise that there is a considerable difference.

Capacity for heat

We know that heat causes changes in temperature and that a unit of heat is measured in Joule as it is a type of energy.

Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat that is transferred (required or released) when the temperature of a substance changes by 1 ºC or 1 K.

Water is the most expensive substance to heat because great amounts of heat are required to raise the temperature of water by a few degrees. Water, on the other hand, also provides large amounts of heat when it cools down.

The effect of this is most marked in the oceans, as they are large masses of water. They are warmed very slowly, but also retain the heat for a long time.

#### Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!