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Ethics tests for solution evaluation

Three ethics tests (reversibility,harm/beneficence, and public identification) encapsulate three ethical approaches (deontology, utilitarianism, and virtue ethics)and form the basis of stage three of the SDC, solution testing. A fourth test (a value realization test) builds upon the publicidentification/virtue ethics test by evaluating a solution in terms of the values it harmonizes, promotes, protects, or realizes. Finally a code test provides an independent check on the ethics tests and also highlights intermediate moral concepts such as safety, health, welfare,faithful agency, conflict of interest, confidentiality, professional integrity, collegiality, privacy, property, freespeech, and equity/access). The following section provides advice on how to use these tests. More information can be found at www.computingcases.org.

Setting up the ethics tests: pitfalls to avoid

Set-Up Pitfalls: Mistakes in this area lead to the analysis becoming unfocused and getting lost in irrelevancies.(a) Agent-switching where the analysis falls prey to irrelevancies that crop up when the test application is not grounded in thestandpoint of a single agent, (b) Sloppy action-description where the analysis fails because no specific action has been tested, (c)Test-switching where the analysis fails because one test is substituted for another. (For example, the public identificationand reversibility tests are often reduced to the harm/beneficence test where harmful consequences are listed but not associated withthe agent or stakeholders.)

    Set up the test

  1. Identify the agent (the person who is going to perform the action)
  2. Describe the action or solution that is being tested (what the agent is going to do or perform)
  3. Identify the stakeholders (those individuals or groups who are going to be affected by the action), and their stakes (interests,values, goods, rights, needs, etc.
  4. Identify, sort out, and weigh the consequences (the results the action is likely to bringabout)

Harm/beneficence test

  • What harms would accompany the action under consideration? Would it produce physical or mental suffering,impose financial or non-financial costs, or deprive others of important or essential goods?
  • What benefits would this action bring about? Would it increase safety, quality of life, health, security,or other goods both moral and non-moral?
  • What is the magnitude of each these consequences? Magnitude includes likelihood it will occur(probability), the severity of its impact (minor or major harm) and the range of people affected.
  • Identify one or two other viable alternatives and repeat these steps for them. Some of these may bemodifications of the basic action that attempt to minimize some of the likely harms. These alternatives will establish a basis forassessing your alternative by comparing it with others.
  • Decide on the basis of the test which alternative produces the best ratio of benefits to harms?
  • Check for inequities in the distribution of harms and benefits. Do all the harms fall on one individual (orgroup)? Do all of the benefits fall on another? If harms and benefits are inequitably distributed, can they be redistributed?What is the impact of redistribution on the original solution imposed?

Questions & Answers

Where is semantic memory u mentioned the name but didn't disscuss the topic..?
Iqra Reply
If u have want to make happy ur babby not by blood but by heart by giving all ur time to them but ur mother wants u to gave that time on urself and ur studies and that makes her happy and mom doesnot know that i accept her as my babby she thought she is just my friend
Actually she is 4 years younger than me but i love her and said my baabby to her what should i do now?
If anyone can help me plz do it i am super depressed
Hlo Iqra...
If u r in real conjunction wd him say ur mom fluently that I wana make him mine I feel depressed
Mom has best hearing power as to understood her/his baby
But my mom dont accept that she think i am just runing my life
U have to b very clear wd ur mom
Where from u
Well i didn't tell about that but i said i love her she is like my soul sister and i love to gave her time but she said if u want to meat her itsok but dont talk on phone because u consume alot time on her and thats not fair
Bhai i am from earth
How can I suggest u it WL take alot time
Actually she dont like her because i gave 3 to 4 hours on phone to her
Where frm u r?
Okay thank u so much bhai i think i got my answer
whats your relation with her ? where you meet her nd why your mom forbid you from talking with her
Ur most welcome sister
She live in my neighborhood we are frnds from childhood but she is 4 yeras younger than me thats why i called her my bachaa and i gave alot of time to her because she have no sister brother and also no frnd and my mom dont like that
Because 3 to 4 hours on phone she dont like usage of phone so much no one did accept me infront her thats why she is against her she dont hate her she just said meet her face to face not on phone
Okay thank u so much all of u now i am feeling good and got my answe also
yeah your mom said right but dont talk too face to face sometimes things that are above limits leads to problems
Yeah u are right inshallah everything will be alright soon
Thank u
inshaa allah..
i have a question?
Yes u can ask
what is one strategy that would promote positive risk taking behavior?
I dont know
Why do I get upset when my girlfriend doesn't tell me she loves me back in front of her friends?
Apollo Reply
Do not depend on her, or don't hope just take care of her ..it doesn't matter that how much she love you..matter that how much you love her..
Because you're insecure, read "The Rational Male" by Rollo Tomassi if you want to make sure that you and your girlfriend are/remain satisfied in your relationship
and don't listen to Kanzul, don't be a pushover
may be you are suspicios if she stay around her male friends
Thank you both, yeah umm it makes sense that I'm insecure and yeah I mean I do love her alot the thing is it's not with her Male friends it's in general.
But also what is considered a pushover so I can avoid that Leon
what is this that a persom constantly saw dream from very early age till now nd saw same dream what is this
Tasneem Reply
Your soul
it is your inner being,it knows, your heart,inner spirit
thank you
samething keeps happening,repeat
why do I have dreams of my boyfriend boss
Nicole Reply
Because you love him and his memories. Or that you are reminded of him very often.
There are some explanation why we have dream. It can be just your brain picking random memory in your brain when you sleep (eventhough we sleep our brain still working) and this random memory your brain pick out become your dream
or this boss left an impression in you, but it doesn't necessarily mean you have a romantic feelings towards this person. Maybe this boss just do some random thing and it left an impression in your memory and you still think about it subconsciously when you sleep and it manifested itself in ur dream
That is perfectly normal and no cause for worry. You might not want to tell your boyfriend though ;)
What do you think is the reason for your friends or the family members coming into the dreams especially wet dreams? And after that what's the feeling of the person?
how to get rid of fearful avoidant issues
Alexsus Reply
Do you think that seminary student needs psychological studies?
Jobin Reply
I think it's best for high schoolers.. we all should be aware of what we are
Yes definitely, especially in an age like this were more and more I've observed students not knowing what they truly are and not knowing how to deal with psychological issues. Plus, it gives them the advantage of knowing how to deal with other people with different ideas and issues.
Absolutely. How would you be able to make any serious decisions in your life, when you are a mess and don't understand your feelings, motivation and reasoning behind this or that issue. Moreover, I think whether you are a seminary student or not, you should also be taught critical thinking skills.
Thank you all
whats is schizophrenia
mobile Reply
long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
What is burn out syndrome?
Emotional and physical exhaustion which appears after a long period of stress.
what is social conflict
deen Reply
a conversation with someone & having conflict with .
Soory Guys hope you ar doing well Im in strong desire to get this kind of book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY but ther cost is too and I'm not able to buy it If you see this announcement please I need soft copy even few please
Anybody who is able to access this book just help even soft copy to saves me Im so soory
Deen social conflict means misunderstand occurred among the people in a certain social context can be caused by poor governance
what is top-notch?
Vi Reply
excellent? the best?
the very best.
best of something. above the expectation
something like expert level
Hi! what is introspection?
the ultimate best.. of excellent quality
honor and respect
Hi! This book INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY I'm not able to buy anybody can help me even soft copy
i want some pdf books who can help me
Google "libgen", you can download almost any book there. I can't send the link as links are blocked by the app
is there any website where I can get a true diagnosis of a personality disorder I think I may possess? I can't seek therapy due to insurance complications
Bailey Reply
Well most websites that offer actual medical diagnoses cost money or they will connect you to a doctor for some sort of meeting.
yeah I've been looking for a decent site for around a year now and that's all Ive found thank you
Yeah it is quite hard to find a reliable site.
diagnosis couldn't get from a websites. you have to refer a doctors for a consultation.
please which site can I download child psychology textbook?
Compare and contrast situational influences and dispositional influences and give an example of each. Explain how situational influences and dispositional influences might explain inappropriate behavior.
Babafemi Reply
please tell me about ethical consideration and research method
Its Reply
what is an ethical consideration that is what a search for my research is seeking out the truth what lies in the darkness and it's hidden by the light
Ethical consideration includes the risk of doing your research
as well as the research can not have lasting affects on the subjects.
Is this live
We as researchers should not harm the subjects of our research, be it the population under study or the selected sample. I think ethical consideration requires that we disclose as much as is practically possible about the requirements of the research to all concerned.
It is ethically sound also to to acknowledge others' findings wherever we reference them in our research because we are to build and grow the body of knowledge by building on the research others have done. This is my contribution.
What is CBT?
cognitive behavioral therapy
When they use this CBT?
what is cbt
mostly used to help treat anxiety and depression related diagnosis. But it's used in other types of mental health issues.
cognitive behavioral therapy. As stated earlier in this discussion.
Thank yoi
Hello! Does anyone have access of these books or articles. (E.Fuller Torrey-Freudian Freud:The malignant effect of freud's theory on American Thought and culture) (Richard Webster-Why Freud was wrong:sin,science and psychoanalysis)?
Amina Reply
which of the following is show weak relationship between two variable a/0.27 b/0.80 c/-0.80 d/0.00
Nahom Reply
is 0.00 show the relationship between two variable weak
why not -0.80 ?
because -0.80 shows strong negative correlation between the variables
a/0.27 is correct option d/0.00 means there is no relationship.
hlo guys
... 👋
what is this about? and what do the numbers mean?
Some statistic calculations for relationship maybe
0.00 means there.s no relationship 0.00-0.30 shows a weak relationship 0.30-0.60 represents a moderate relationship from 0.60 to 1 it is a strong relationships. whether the sign is + or - does not influence what I just said. sooo which one shows a weak relationship? A/0.27
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