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What are the‘big problems’facing educational reform? They can be summed up in one sentence: School systems areoverloaded with fragmented, ad hoc, episodic initiatives—[with] lots of activity and confusion. Put another way, change even whensuccessful in pockets, fails to go to scale. It fails to become systemic. And, of course, it has no chance of becoming sustained.(p. ix)

Many believe that change in school districts is piecemeal, disconnected, and non-systemic. Jack Dale, Maryland’s Superintendent of the Year for 2000 and the current superintendentof the Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia commented on the problem of incremental, piecemeal change. He said piecemeal changeoccurs as educators respond to demands from a school system’s environment. He asked (in Duffy, 2002),

How have we responded? Typically, we design a new program to meet each emerging need as it is identified andvalidated.... The continual addition of discrete educational programs does not work.... Each of the specialty programs developedhave, in fact, shifted the responsibility (burden) from the whole system to expecting a specific program to solve the problem. (p.34)

Another person who commented on the ineffectiveness of piecemeal change was Scott Thompson, AssistantExecutive Director of the Panasonic Foundation, a sponsor of district-wide change. In talking about piecemeal change, Thompson(2001) said,“The challenge [of school improvement], however,cannot be met through isolated programs; it requires a systemic response. Tackling it will require fundamental changes in thepolicies, roles, practices, finances, culture, and structure of the school system”(p. 2).

Regarding the inadequacies of the one-school-at-a-time approach, Lew Rhodes (1997), a formerassistant executive director for the American Association of School Administrators said,

It was a lot easier 30 years ago when John Goodlad popularized the idea of the school building as thefundamental unit of change.... But now it is time to question that assumption--not because it is wrong--but because it isinsufficient. Otherwise, how can we answer the question:‘If the building is the primary unit at which to focus change efforts, whyafter 30 years has so little really changed?’(p. 19)

Focusing school improvement only on individual school buildings and classrooms within a district alsoleaves some teachers and children behind in average and low performing schools. Leaving teachers and students behind in averageor low performing schools is a subtle, but powerful, form of discrimination. School-aged children and their teachers, families,and communities deserve better. It is morally unconscionable to allow some schools in a district to excel while others celebratetheir mediocrity or languish in their desperation. Entire school districts must improve, not just parts of them.

There are two additional consequences of piecemeal change within school systems. First, piecemealimprovements are not and never will be widespread; second, piecemeal improvements are not and cannot be long-lasting.Widespread and long-lasting improvements require district-wide change led by courageous, passionate, and visionary leaders whorecognize the inherent limitations of piecemeal change and who recognize that a child’s educational experience is the cumulative effect of his or her“education career”in a school district.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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