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In this glossary, key symbols and notation are briefly defined.

Symbol Definition
any symbol ¯ size 12{ {overline {"any"`" symbol"}} } {} average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v ¯ size 12{ {overline {v}} } {} is average velocity)
° C size 12{°C} {} Celsius degree
° F size 12{°F} {} Fahrenheit degree
// size 12{"//"} {} parallel
size 12{ ortho } {} perpendicular
size 12{ prop } {} proportional to
± size 12{ +- {}} {} plus or minus
0 size 12{ {} rSub { size 8{0} } } {} zero as a subscript denotes an initial value
α size 12{α} {} alpha rays
α size 12{α} {} angular acceleration
α size 12{α} {} temperature coefficient(s) of resistivity
β size 12{β} {} beta rays
β size 12{β} {} sound level
β size 12{β} {} volume coefficient of expansion
β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} electron emitted in nuclear beta decay
β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} positron decay
γ size 12{γ} {} gamma rays
γ size 12{γ} {} surface tension
γ = 1 / 1 v 2 / c 2 size 12{γ= {1} slash { sqrt {1 - {v rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {c rSup { size 8{2} } } } } } {} a constant used in relativity
Δ size 12{Δ} {} change in whatever quantity follows
δ size 12{δ} {} uncertainty in whatever quantity follows
ΔE size 12{ΔE} {} change in energy between the initial and final orbits of an electron in an atom
ΔE size 12{ΔE} {} uncertainty in energy
Δm size 12{Δm} {} difference in mass between initial and final products
ΔN size 12{ΔN} {} number of decays that occur
Δp size 12{Δp} {} change in momentum
Δp size 12{Δp} {} uncertainty in momentum
Δ PE g size 12{Δ"PE" rSub { size 8{g} } } {} change in gravitational potential energy
Δθ size 12{Δθ} {} rotation angle
Δs size 12{Δs} {} distance traveled along a circular path
Δt size 12{Δt} {} uncertainty in time
Δt 0 size 12{Δt rSub { size 8{0} } } {} proper time as measured by an observer at rest relative to the process
ΔV size 12{ΔV} {} potential difference
Δx size 12{Δx} {} uncertainty in position
ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} permittivity of free space
η size 12{η} {} viscosity
θ size 12{θ} {} angle between the force vector and the displacement vector
θ size 12{θ} {} angle between two lines
θ size 12{θ} {} contact angle
θ size 12{θ} {} direction of the resultant
θ b size 12{θ rSub { size 8{b} } } {} Brewster's angle
θ c size 12{θ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical angle
κ size 12{κ} {} dielectric constant
λ size 12{λ} {} decay constant of a nuclide
λ size 12{λ} {} wavelength
λ n size 12{λ rSub { size 8{n} } } {} wavelength in a medium
μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} permeability of free space
μ k size 12{μ rSub { size 8{k} } } {} coefficient of kinetic friction
μ s size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} coefficient of static friction
v e size 12{v rSub { size 8{e} } } {} electron neutrino
π + size 12{π rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} positive pion
π size 12{π rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} negative pion
π 0 size 12{π rSup { size 8{0} } } {} neutral pion
ρ size 12{ρ} {} density
ρ c size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical density, the density needed to just halt universal expansion
ρ fl size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} fluid density
ρ ¯ obj size 12{ {overline {ρ}} rSub { size 8{"obj"} } } {} average density of an object
ρ / ρ w size 12{ {ρ} slash {ρ rSub { size 8{w} } } } {} specific gravity
τ size 12{τ} {} characteristic time constant for a resistance and inductance ( RL ) size 12{ \( ital "RL" \) } {} or resistance and capacitance ( RC ) size 12{ \( ital "RC" \) } {} circuit
τ size 12{τ} {} characteristic time for a resistor and capacitor ( RC ) size 12{ \( ital "RC" \) } {} circuit
τ size 12{τ} {} torque
Υ size 12{Υ} {} upsilon meson
Φ size 12{Φ} {} magnetic flux
ϕ size 12{ϕ} {} phase angle
Ω size 12{ %OMEGA } {} ohm (unit)
ω size 12{ω} {} angular velocity
A size 12{A} {} ampere (current unit)
A size 12{A} {} area
A size 12{A} {} cross-sectional area
A size 12{A} {} total number of nucleons
a size 12{a} {} acceleration
a B size 12{a rSub { size 8{B} } } {} Bohr radius
a c size 12{a rSub { size 8{c} } } {} centripetal acceleration
a t size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } } {} tangential acceleration
AC size 12{"AC"} {} alternating current
AM size 12{"AM"} {} amplitude modulation
atm size 12{"atm"} {} atmosphere
B size 12{B} {} baryon number
B size 12{B} {} blue quark color
B ¯ size 12{ {overline {B}} } {} antiblue (yellow) antiquark color
b size 12{b} {} quark flavor bottom or beauty
B size 12{B} {} bulk modulus
B size 12{B} {} magnetic field strength
B int size 12{B rSub { size 8{"int"} } } {} electron’s intrinsic magnetic field
B orb size 12{B rSub { size 8{"orb"} } } {} orbital magnetic field
BE size 12{"BE"} {} binding energy of a nucleus—it is the energy required to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons
BE / A size 12{ {"BE"} slash {A} } {} binding energy per nucleon
Bq size 12{"Bq"} {} becquerel—one decay per second
C size 12{C} {} capacitance (amount of charge stored per volt)
C size 12{C} {} coulomb (a fundamental SI unit of charge)
C p size 12{C rSub { size 8{p} } } {} total capacitance in parallel
C s size 12{C rSub { size 8{s} } } {} total capacitance in series
CG size 12{"CG"} {} center of gravity
CM size 12{"CM"} {} center of mass
c size 12{c} {} quark flavor charm
c size 12{c} {} specific heat
c size 12{c} {} speed of light
Cal size 12{"Cal"} {} kilocalorie
cal size 12{"cal"} {} calorie
COP hp size 12{ ital "COP" rSub { size 8{"hp"} } } {} heat pump’s coefficient of performance
COP ref size 12{ ital "COP" rSub { size 8{"ref"} } } {} coefficient of performance for refrigerators and air conditioners
cos θ size 12{"cos"θ} {} cosine
cot θ size 12{"cot"θ} {} cotangent
csc θ size 12{"csc"θ} {} cosecant
D size 12{D} {} diffusion constant
d size 12{d} {} displacement
d size 12{d} {} quark flavor down
dB size 12{"dB"} {} decibel
d i size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } } {} distance of an image from the center of a lens
d o size 12{d rSub { size 8{o} } } {} distance of an object from the center of a lens
DC size 12{"DC"} {} direct current
E size 12{E} {} electric field strength
ε size 12{ε} {} emf (voltage) or Hall electromotive force
emf size 12{"emf"} {} electromotive force
E size 12{E} {} energy of a single photon
E size 12{E} {} nuclear reaction energy
E size 12{E} {} relativistic total energy
E size 12{E} {} total energy
E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} ground state energy for hydrogen
E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} rest energy
EC size 12{"EC"} {} electron capture
E cap size 12{E rSub { size 8{"cap"} } } {} energy stored in a capacitor
Eff size 12{ ital "Eff"} {} efficiency—the useful work output divided by the energy input
Eff C size 12{ ital "Eff" rSub { size 8{C} } } {} Carnot efficiency
E in size 12{E rSub { size 8{"in"} } } {} energy consumed (food digested in humans)
E ind size 12{E rSub { size 8{"ind"} } } {} energy stored in an inductor
E out size 12{E rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} energy output
e size 12{e} {} emissivity of an object
e + size 12{e rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} antielectron or positron
eV size 12{"eV"} {} electron volt
F size 12{F} {} farad (unit of capacitance, a coulomb per volt)
F size 12{F} {} focal point of a lens
F size 12{F} {} force
F size 12{F} {} magnitude of a force
F size 12{F} {} restoring force
F B size 12{F rSub { size 8{B} } } {} buoyant force
F c size 12{F rSub { size 8{c} } } {} centripetal force
F i size 12{F rSub { size 8{i} } } {} force input
F net size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } } {} net force
F o size 12{F rSub { size 8{o} } } {} force output
FM size 12{"FM"} {} frequency modulation
f size 12{f} {} focal length
f size 12{f} {} frequency
f 0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} resonant frequency of a resistance, inductance, and capacitance ( RLC ) size 12{ \( ital "RLC" \) } {} series circuit
f 0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} threshold frequency for a particular material (photoelectric effect)
f 1 size 12{f rSub { size 8{1} } } {} fundamental
f 2 size 12{f rSub { size 8{2} } } {} first overtone
f 3 size 12{f rSub { size 8{3} } } {} second overtone
f B size 12{f rSub { size 8{B} } } {} beat frequency
f k size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } } {} magnitude of kinetic friction
f s size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } } {} magnitude of static friction
G size 12{G} {} gravitational constant
G size 12{G} {} green quark color
G ¯ size 12{ {overline {G}} } {} antigreen (magenta) antiquark color
g size 12{g} {} acceleration due to gravity
g size 12{g} {} gluons (carrier particles for strong nuclear force)
h size 12{h} {} change in vertical position
h size 12{h} {} height above some reference point
h size 12{h} {} maximum height of a projectile
h size 12{h} {} Planck's constant
hf size 12{ ital "hf"} {} photon energy
h i size 12{h rSub { size 8{i} } } {} height of the image
h o size 12{h rSub { size 8{o} } } {} height of the object
I size 12{I} {} electric current
I size 12{I} {} intensity
I size 12{I} {} intensity of a transmitted wave
I size 12{I} {} moment of inertia (also called rotational inertia)
I 0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } } {} intensity of a polarized wave before passing through a filter
I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} average intensity for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave
I rms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} average current
J size 12{J} {} joule
J / Ψ size 12{ {J} slash {Ψ} } {} Joules/psi meson
K size 12{K} {} kelvin
k size 12{k} {} Boltzmann constant
k size 12{k} {} force constant of a spring
K α size 12{K rSub { size 8{α} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n = 1 size 12{n=1} {} shell vacancy from the n = 3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
K β size 12{K rSub { size 8{β} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n = 2 size 12{n=2} {} shell vacancy from the n = 3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
kcal size 12{"kcal"} {} kilocalorie
KE size 12{"KE"} {} translational kinetic energy
KE + PE size 12{"KE"+" PE"} {} mechanical energy
KE e size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{e} } } {} kinetic energy of an ejected electron
KE rel size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{"rel"} } } {} relativistic kinetic energy
KE rot size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{"rot"} } } {} rotational kinetic energy
KE ¯ size 12{ {overline {"KE"}} } {} thermal energy
kg size 12{"kg"} {} kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
L size 12{L} {} angular momentum
L size 12{L} {} liter
L size 12{L} {} magnitude of angular momentum
L size 12{L} {} self-inductance
size 12{ℓ} {} angular momentum quantum number
L α size 12{L rSub { size 8{α} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n = 2 size 12{n=2} {} shell from the n = 3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
L e size 12{L rSub { size 8{e} } } {} electron total family number
L μ size 12{L rSub { size 8{μ} } } {} muon family total number
L τ size 12{L rSub { size 8{τ} } } {} tau family total number
L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} heat of fusion
L f and L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } " and"` L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} latent heat coefficients
L orb size 12{L rSub { size 8{"orb"} } } {} orbital angular momentum
L s size 12{L rSub { size 8{s} } } {} heat of sublimation
L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} heat of vaporization
L z size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } } {} z - component of the angular momentum
M size 12{M} {} angular magnification
M size 12{M} {} mutual inductance
m size 12{m} {} indicates metastable state
m size 12{m} {} magnification
m size 12{m} {} mass
m size 12{m} {} mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
m size 12{m} {} meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
m size 12{m} {} order of interference
m size 12{m} {} overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
m A X size 12{m left ("" lSup { size 8{A} } X right )} {} atomic mass of a nuclide
MA size 12{"MA"} {} mechanical advantage
m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} magnification of the eyepiece
m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} mass of the electron
m size 12{m rSub { size 8{ℓ} } } {} angular momentum projection quantum number
m n size 12{m rSub { size 8{n} } } {} mass of a neutron
m o size 12{m rSub { size 8{o} } } {} magnification of the objective lens
mol size 12{"mol"} {} mole
m p size 12{m rSub { size 8{p} } } {} mass of a proton
m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} spin projection quantum number
N size 12{N} {} magnitude of the normal force
N size 12{N} {} newton
N size 12{N} {} normal force
N size 12{N} {} number of neutrons
n size 12{n} {} index of refraction
n size 12{n} {} number of free charges per unit volume
N A size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } } {} Avogadro's number
N r size 12{N rSub { size 8{r} } } {} Reynolds number
N m size 12{N cdot m} {} newton-meter (work-energy unit)
N m size 12{N cdot m} {} newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
OE size 12{"OE"} {} other energy
P size 12{P} {} power
P size 12{P} {} power of a lens
P size 12{P} {} pressure
p size 12{p} {} momentum
p size 12{p} {} momentum magnitude
p size 12{p} {} relativistic momentum
p tot size 12{p rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} total momentum
p tot ' size 12{ { {p}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{`"tot"} } } {} total momentum some time later
P abs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} absolute pressure
P atm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} atmospheric pressure
P atm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} standard atmospheric pressure
PE size 12{"PE"} {} potential energy
PE el size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{"el"} } } {} elastic potential energy
PE elec size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{"elec"} } } {} electric potential energy
PE s size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{s} } } {} potential energy of a spring
P g size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} gauge pressure
P in size 12{P rSub { size 8{"in"} } } {} power consumption or input
P out size 12{P rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
Q size 12{Q} {} latent heat
Q size 12{Q} {} net heat transferred into a system
Q size 12{Q} {} flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
+ Q size 12{+Q} {} positive charge
Q size 12{ - Q} {} negative charge
q size 12{q} {} electron charge
q p size 12{q rSub { size 8{p} } } {} charge of a proton
q size 12{q} {} test charge
QF size 12{"QF"} {} quality factor
R size 12{R} {} activity, the rate of decay
R size 12{R} {} radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
R size 12{R} {} red quark color
R ¯ size 12{ {overline {R}} } {} antired (cyan) quark color
R size 12{R} {} resistance
R size 12{R} {} resultant or total displacement
R size 12{R} {} Rydberg constant
R size 12{R} {} universal gas constant
r size 12{r} {} distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
r size 12{r} {} internal resistance
r size 12{r rSub { size 8{ ortho } } } {} perpendicular lever arm
r size 12{r} {} radius of a nucleus
r size 12{r} {} radius of curvature
r size 12{r} {} resistivity
r or rad size 12{"r or rad"} {} radiation dose unit
rem size 12{"rem"} {} roentgen equivalent man
rad size 12{"rad"} {} radian
RBE size 12{"RBE"} {} relative biological effectiveness
RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} resistor and capacitor circuit
rms size 12{"rms"} {} root mean square
r n size 12{r rSub { size 8{n} } } {} radius of the n th H-atom orbit
R p size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } } {} total resistance of a parallel connection
R s size 12{R rSub { size 8{s} } } {} total resistance of a series connection
R s size 12{R rSub { size 8{s} } } {} Schwarzschild radius
S size 12{S} {} entropy
S size 12{S} {} intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
S size 12{S} {} magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
S size 12{S} {} shear modulus
S size 12{S} {} strangeness quantum number
s size 12{s} {} quark flavor strange
s size 12{s} {} second (fundamental SI unit of time)
s size 12{s} {} spin quantum number
s size 12{s} {} total displacement
sec θ size 12{"sec"θ} {} secant
sin θ size 12{"sin"θ} {} sine
s z size 12{s rSub { size 8{z} } } {} z -component of spin angular momentum
T size 12{T} {} period—time to complete one oscillation
T size 12{T} {} temperature
T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
T size 12{T} {} tension
T size 12{T} {} tesla (magnetic field strength B )
t size 12{t} {} quark flavor top or truth
t size 12{t} {} time
t 1 / 2 size 12{t rSub { size 8{ {1} slash {2} } } } {} half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
tan θ size 12{"tan"θ} {} tangent
U size 12{U} {} internal energy
u size 12{u} {} quark flavor up
u size 12{u} {} unified atomic mass unit
u size 12{u} {} velocity of an object relative to an observer
u ' size 12{ { {u}} sup { ' }} {} velocity relative to another observer
V size 12{V} {} electric potential
V size 12{V} {} terminal voltage
V size 12{V} {} volt (unit)
V size 12{V} {} volume
v size 12{v} {} relative velocity between two observers
v size 12{v} {} speed of light in a material
v size 12{v} {} velocity
v ¯ size 12{ {overline {v}} } {} average fluid velocity
V B V A size 12{V rSub { size 8{B} } - V rSub { size 8{A} } } {} change in potential
v d size 12{v rSub { size 8{d} } } {} drift velocity
V p size 12{V rSub { size 8{p} } } {} transformer input voltage
V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} rms voltage
V s size 12{V rSub { size 8{s} } } {} transformer output voltage
v tot size 12{v rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} total velocity
v w size 12{v rSub { size 8{w} } } {} propagation speed of sound or other wave
v w size 12{v rSub { size 8{w} } } {} wave velocity
W size 12{W} {} work
W size 12{W} {} net work done by a system
W size 12{W} {} watt
w size 12{w} {} weight
w fl size 12{w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} weight of the fluid displaced by an object
W c size 12{W rSub { size 8{c} } } {} total work done by all conservative forces
W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} total work done by all nonconservative forces
W out size 12{W rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} useful work output
X size 12{X} {} amplitude
X size 12{X} {} symbol for an element
Z A X N size 12{"" lSub { size 8{Z} } lSup { size 8{A} } X rSub { size 8{N} } } {} notation for a particular nuclide
x size 12{x} {} deformation or displacement from equilibrium
x size 12{x} {} displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
x size 12{x} {} horizontal axis
X C size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {} capacitive reactance
X L size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} inductive reactance
x rms size 12{x rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} root mean square diffusion distance
y size 12{y} {} vertical axis
Y size 12{Y} {} elastic modulus or Young's modulus
Z size 12{Z} {} atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
Z size 12{Z} {} impedance

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Basic physics for medical imaging. OpenStax CNX. Feb 17, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11630/1.1
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