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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Nedersettings

Module 5

Vervoer

1. Verbeterde verkeersmiddele

In die jare voordat fabrieke opgerig is om produkte op groot skaal te maak het mense op klein skaal by hulle huise of in kleiner geboue hulle werk gedoen. Hulle moes werk toe stap en het dus so na as moontlik aan hulle werk gebly. Teen die middel van die 19de eeu (omtrent 1825 – 1875) het die nywerheidsomwenteling gekom, masjiene is vervaardig, die eerste motors is gebou en fabrieke is opgerig. Daarna het die vervoermiddele vinnig ontwikkel en spoedig was dit nie net die motor nie, maar trems, stoomtreine en later elektriese treine, moltreine, busse en vinnige motors. Skielik kon die mense nou verder van hulle werkplekke bly en dit het veroorsaak dat die grense van dorpe en stede baie vinnig groter geword het. Dit het ‘n groot invloed op die stad se beeld van binne en buite gehad, bv.

  • mense se werkplekke en slaapplekke is al verder weg van mekaar aangetref;
  • verskillende tipes woongebiede (hoëklas, middelklas en werkersklas)- en werkgebiede (kantoorblokke en winkels in die middedorp; fabrieke op die rand van die dorp) het ontstaan;
  • hoë geboue het in die middestad / dorp ontstaan want almal wou daar wees, grond het duurder geword en mense het begin om geboue “bo-op mekaar” (verdiepings) te bou; ‘n nuwe vervoermiddel, die hysbak, het ontstaan;
  • paaie en spoorlyne is gebou en mense het hulle huise en besighede daarlangsaan opgerig – so het dorpe en stede allerhande vorme begin aanneem as jy van bo af sou kyk, bv. die middedorp met al sy paaie en geboue daarlangsaan lyk stervormig. (FOTO VAN DORP SIEN 301)
  • groot dele van dorpe / stede is geteer vir parkering, strate is verbreed en betonoerwoude het ontstaan.;
  • baie van die funksies wat slegs in die middedorp (SSK - Sentrale Sakekern) aangetref is, soos bioskope, groter winkels, kantore, ens. het na die voorstede verskuif. Groot winkelsentrumkomplekse, soos Tygervalleisentrum en Eastgate is gebou en het huisvesting gebied vir ‘n groot aantal funksies bymekaar. Eenstopinkopiegeriewe met genoeg parkeerplek en minder verkeer lok groot getalle mense elke dag;
  • die stad het skielik baie vinnig in feitlik alle rigtings uitgebrei en dit is nou moeilik om te bepaal watter vorm ‘n stad aanneem – meeste stede is basies vormloos.

2. Hoe het hierdie ontwikkeling die mense in ons land geraak?

Ons weet reeds dat die stad ‘n geweldige aantrekkingskrag het en dat letterlik duisende nuwe intrekkers daagliks na groter dorpe en stede trek, sommige omdat hulle verplaas is en reeds werk het en andere met die hoop dat hulle werk sal kry en ‘n beter bestaan kan maak. Kom ons probeer ‘n beeld skep van die gevolge van die geweldige uitbreiding van dorpe en stede:

  • mense beweeg om verskeie redes na die stad soos hierbo gemeld. Daar word bereken dat daar tussen 10 000 en 15 000 nuwe intrekkers elke maand in die groter Kaapstad-gebied intrek. Sommige van hulle (klein groepie) het werk, is verplaas of verander van omgewing en hulle is gewoonlik finansieel sterk. Die oorgrote meerderheid hoop egter hulle kry werk en kom om ‘n beter bestaan te probeer maak. Ons fokus eers meer op hierdie groep;
  • as die mense hier aankom het hulle geen woon- of werkplek nie. Hulle beweeg dus na die buiterand van die stad waar hulle informele huise oprig. Dit het aanleiding gegee tot die ontstaan van reuse dorpsgebiede soos Khayalitsha, Kruispad, Guguletu, Soweto, ens;
  • aangesien die mense nie geld of werk het nie, leef hulle in haglike omstandig-hede. Daar is nie ordentlike sanitêre geriewe nie, ook nie altyd skoon water of wasgeriewe nie. Bowenal is hulle honger en ‘n honger mens sal enigiets doen om kos te kry, ook steel as dit moet;
  • dit veroorsaak dat misdaad toeneem. Werklose mense is bedags by die huis terwyl ander gaan werk. Die werkendes word of deur die dag besteel of hulle word saans deur bendes voorgelê en van hulle geld beroof;
  • aangesien die informele dorpe meestal onbepland is, is die mense ook aan die natuur, soos storms, oorstromings, ens. blootgestel en staan hulle huise menigmaal in die water as dit gereën het;
  • om warm te bly moet hulle vuurmaak en om kos gaar te maak moet hulle of gas of primusstofies, wat met lampolie werk en hoogs ontvlambaar is, gebruik. Ons hoor en lees kort-kort van groot brande wat in die informele dorpe uitbreek en honderde hutte afbrand – partykeer sterf mense en meestal verloor hulle al hulle besittings;
  • diegene wat wel werk het moet soggens die trein of bus of taxi (‘n nuwe bedryf wat ontstaan het a.g.v. tekort aan vervoer) haal en omdat die werkplek partykeer baie ver van die woonplek is, moet hulle al baie vroeg hulle huise verlaat en kom hulle saans baie laat weer terug. So verwaarloos hulle ook hulle eie kinders wat op hulleself aangewese is elke dag;
  • baie jonger mense en kinders begin bedel in die middestad. Kinders gaan nie skool toe nie maar bly op straat en slaap op winkelstoepe, terwyl sommige probeer om informele huise van plastiek en sak op enige moontlike oop ruimte, te bou. ‘n Mens sien hulle selfs op die eilande tussen die hoofpaaie op die N1 en onder brûe;
  • die koms van die motorvoertuig dra ook grootliks by tot lugbesoedeling in die stad en ‘n groot deel van die bruin luglaag wat ons gereeld oor die stad sien hang, is afkomstig van die uitlaatgasse van motorvoertuie;
  • die mense wat finansieel sterk is kan huise bekostig, bly in een of ander van die voorstede en ry met hulle privaatmotors werk toe.

Die finansiële vermoëns van mense bepaal dus watter tipe vervoer hulle gebruik en dit het ‘n groot invloed op waar hulle woon en werk.

  • Mense wat dit kan bekostig maak hoofsaaklik van die privaatmotor en/of ryklubs gebruik om by hulle werk te kom. Dit beteken dat hulle groter vryheid het om ‘n huis te koop waar hulle wil.
  • Mense wat behoeftig of armer is se keuses is beperk. As hulle nie binne stapafstand van hulle werk woon nie, moet hulle of naby ‘n busstop of stasie woon om soggens by hulle werk te kom, anders moet hulle stap. Dit is verbasend hoe baie mense soggens lang afstande werk toe stap omdat hulle nie die vervoer kan bekostig nie.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om inligting deur middel van opnames te bekom

[lu 1.7]

Hierdie gedeelte oor verkeersmiddele kan as geheel met plaaslike opnames deur leerders gedoen word, bv.

1. Maak ‘n opname in julle klas van hoe leerders by die skool kom. Maak ‘n evalueringsruit (grid) en skryf die verskillende soorte vervoer bo-aan, bv. bus, trein, privaatmotor, stap, ens.

2. Maak ‘n tweede opname en bepaal die afstande wat leerders naastenby van die skool bly en vergelyk dit met die vervoermiddels wat hulle gebruik.

3. Laat individuele leerders elk ‘n eie evalueringsruit opstel en ‘n opname by hulle ouers doen oor die volgende aspekte: waar werk hulle, hoe kom hulle by die werk – verskillende soorte vervoer, ryklubs, ens.

4. Maak ‘n opname by die skool onder die werkers en bepaal waar hulle woon en hoe hulle by die werk kom. Vra vrae soos: hoe laat gaan julle soggens by die huis weg? Hoe laat kom julle by die huis? Hoe kom julle kinders by die skool? ens. vergelyk die verskillende stelle inligting met mekaar – wat vind julle?

5. Maak ‘n lys van probleme wat mense in groot dorpe en stede ondervind wat met verkeer te doen het, bv. verkeersknope; baie tyd wat verlore gaan omdat mense in stadige verkeer sit; swak vervoermiddels in lae sosio-ekonomiese gebiede; gevaar op voorstedelike treine, ens. (Doen op aparte folio en voeg by module)

  • Identifiseer die DRIE grootste of ernstigste probleme. Verdeel die klas in DRIE groepe en elk neem een probleem deur die stappe van probleemoplossing. Doen moontlike oplossings aan die hand en kom dra dit op een of ander manier voor in die klas.
  • Hou ‘n klasbespreking / paneelbespreking oor die rol van verkeersmiddele in die lewens van mense in verskillende sosio-ekonomiese groepe.

Assessering

Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
AARDRYKSKUNDIGE ONDERSOEK Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en –prosesse te ondersoek.
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
  • 1.2 inligting uit kaarte en atlasse en uit grafiese en statistiese bronne interpreteer [werk met bronne];
  • 1.5 inligting in die veld waarneem en dit opteken [werk met bronne];
  • 1.7 op verskeie maniere verslag doen oor kennis wat tydens die ondersoek verkry is deur ‘n redenasie gegrond op inligtingsbronne te formuleer; gebruik kaarte, diagramme en grafika; gebruik, waar moontlik, rekenaars in die aanbieding [dra die antwoord oor].

Questions & Answers

Do you have a pdf available for this content?
Ancil Reply
do you have a pdf of this content?
Ancil
For which?
vidhyalakshmi
stress,coping and wellbeing
Ancil
you can google it, you'll find plenty
Priyank
but i felt contents in this app is awesome , that's why i was looking for the pdf contents of this app
Ancil
Ypp I too feel the content useful
Sakshi
what is creative thinking
Ayesha Reply
The thinking process where you are able to project a clutter of ideas and streamline them into concepts that either appeal to or meet the specifications of the target end product of what that thinking process is applied for
Neo
creative thinking could be thinking outside the box, going against the grain sort of speaking.
vincent
Creative thinking is a new way or method in reaching the target which none has used until that particular moment.It is always attractive and easy to reach next levels.And the point is not all people get this sort of thinking.
vidhyalakshmi
What is the difference between drive and motivation?
Shanice Reply
who would give a psychopath and a sociopath meth amphetamine ( exampels)-louise otero and Sylvia myers
Shawnasie
drive is like a commitment to follow through and motivation is kinda like the desire to follow through.. both together would bring a desire to follow through I suppose
Alexis
Drive is that feeling/reason for the desire to do something, while motivation is that thing which keeps your drive going. Motivation pushes you to achieve what drives you. Drive is the answer for 'how do you do this' while motivation is that catalyst that helps you complete what you started.
Kavya
Why wasn't Carl Jung discussed within the context of historical ( introduction to) psychology?
Dr Reply
What are the symptoms of acute stress?
Shanice Reply
Lose interest in the things that you like to do (for example you like to read or watch movie but when you have acute stress those things don't excite you anymore), feeling tired all day, insomnia / hypersomnia.. and the symptoms has last for quite some time.
Kelly
There are more symptoms but I can't remember it right now
Kelly
Is weight loss one of them ?
Shanice
yeah but you also have to take in consideration as well you may want to think about the full word or question being discussed or asked, starting with the word Acute, so maybe size it levels of stress present are a main focus when answering or giving optional input so yes i agree
Kayla
weight loss or gain it can go both ways ( my personal experience) and it is often hard to break the chain to change back to health level
altug
Okay, thanks.
Shanice
how can we practice personality psychology?
Nasra
what's the captive psychology?
ghada
guys you are really mean, you don't even want to at least try to help me. 😢😢😢😢😭😭I thought you were awesome
Nasra
ow
Maxamed
define human emotions and types of emotions
Chukwuede Reply
sorry I hit send to many times
vincent
human emotions are your feelings like angry sad happy etc
latosha
emotion is a personal conscious experience.
bett
I don't understand sensation and perception 😩
Shanice Reply
Sensation - detection of basic stimuli (light coming into eyes) Perception - way we interpret the detected stimuli (seeing colours)
Marcel
I second you marcel
Sachin
how can I learn behaviorism
Brent Reply
***youtu.be/NNnIGh9g6fA
Waskar
Any other methods to manage stress ? And Thank You !
Charbel Reply
Any idea about new ways to manage stress ? And Thank You !
Charbel
I'd like to manage my stress better too how thou?
Shawnasie
a wide array of copping mechanisms that you could alternate between would be my best guess
Shawnasie
I guess, managing stress is not that difficult. When you get some sort of stress, make a pause and leave the place for a while.Get some fresh air,some happy songs,make a convo with your best friend,eat as much as you want,and the best way is to take a nap. :)
vidhyalakshmi
Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except......
EDNSAGAR Reply
how many stages do people go through in life and what are their names
Stanley Reply
3 stages: adolescent, youth, old
Komal
what about infant, toddler, pre-school, adolescent, young adult, middle age and elderly?
Kathy
anagen , catagen, telogen. or is that just for hair growth only?
Carrie
you should look up Freud and Erikson stages
vincent
good answer Vincent.
Kathy
so much to learn in psych.
Kathy
thank you :)
vincent
Hi
zahir
Guys how are you?
zahir
Let's talk about abnormal psychology?
zahir
I need to understand lot about what
zahir
hi
Tasfia
Abnormal psyh is a huge undertaking...you should take some classes. You could be in school for years, there is so much to learn. I took psych in nursing school and did clinical at a now closed psych institution...and I loved it. The human condition is amazing.
Kathy
Abnormal psych is a great major.
Kathy
Thanks. That's what i need to learn all about behavior. Human beings. Nervous and whats happen in the brain
zahir
I tray to be good for all of those stuff
zahir
What is this chat about
Elise
Take intro to psych to see if you enjoy it!
Kathy
infant, child, adolescent, young adult, middle adult, and old adult
Steffenney
Why does anxiety show up alarmingly fast for some people but others show little signs of it?
Elise Reply
why does this app have chat
Callum
It is more of a discussion.
Elise
a forum then
Callum
I guess so.
Elise
anxiety stops people from participating so seeing signs of it is usually difficult is it not?
Callum
it's pretty epic
juan
is there an app for psychophysiology?
juan
Not sure what you mean by participating but what I was meaning was anxiety affects others dramatically while some others don't even have anxiety and I was wondering why that occurs.
Elise
by participation i meant anxiety causes fear to move outside your comfort zone or even some activities within it.
Callum
so your question is why do some people have anxiety and some don't?
Callum
I guess so.
Elise
It depends on a person's lifestyle and how the people surrounding them are and the person's mentality
Kevin
I'm not a psychologist I'm an occupational therapists but I'd assume it's a mixture of genetics, environmental factors and development.
Callum
as kevin said
Callum
Right on spot :)
Kevin
It might be because of the natural disposition and personality traits. suppose, if someone is open to new experiences they might not find a new situation challenging enough while on the other hand a person not open to ideas and experience might find himself/herself in a tight corner worrying.
Simran
That is what I thought as well. I have just recently been asked a lot about anxiety and I didnt want to misinforming
Elise
I think it has to do with the way brain is wired for each. some have to build resistance to anxiety whereas others already have a higher resistance to anxiety.
vincent
I struggle with Anxiety very severe. And I don't really know what to do to help get rid of it..
Aryana
anxiety is an elusive but powerful mental problem, it would definitely be intersting to look into it more
Callum
hmmm
Aryana
Anxiety is something that is hard to handle at points. If it gets hard to handle best thing is professional help.
Elise
The best methods i have seen to beat anxiety, i do suffer from it myself, is exposure therapy where you put yourself into those difficult situations like talking to strangers that kind of thing and just working your way through experience
Callum
Well my anxiety is pretty difficult to do that, I get super red when I like get anxiety attacks and other things with it
Aryana
I recommend tai chi or the 1 2 3 breathing exercises
vincent
Also many don't experience anxiety like I do but it will come on randomly and thr best thing to do is breathe.
Elise
yea i can imagine that is why it would have to be in some kind of safe place where you can escape or relax if needed.
Callum
what is tai chi? And yeah I usually do just turn the other way and breathe but still it hits hard
Aryana
there can be multiple reasons behind it. it can also be subjected to sufficient and necessary causes. There can be number of incidents that could have made a person anxious in the past and that has piled up and even similar issue ahead can manifest a lot of reaction and anxiety in future.
Simran
breathing exercises are definitely important too yea
Callum
Yeah thank you
Aryana
Best thing is to just breathe and remember to be relaxed
Elise
if youre not already you should definitely seek seeing someone about it. idk where you guys live but in NZ we get 10 free sessions
Callum
Talking to a professional will help you understand and receive treatment.
Elise
Yeah, I've been watching to go talk to someone but I can't being myself to get the courage to talk about this
Aryana
There might be an underlying cause behind it and a professional can help you to understand the cause of it and how to break through your inhibitions. You can try out progressive muscle relaxation exercises as well, it will help in calming you down and benefits are way too much there.
Simran
well you can talk here this seems like a reasonably safe place but i would encourage you try to see someone, maybe take a family member, friend for support
Callum
It will be best for physical and emotional health
Elise
Yeah I agree, but sometimes I can't even talk to a family member or friend because I feel like I'm being judged or something but that just comes with the problem
Aryana
i used to feel like that but there is no shame for asking for help and they should support you if want to get better.
Callum
I know how that feels. You will have to accept that you need the help. It may take a while.
Elise
Yeah
Aryana
I honestly wouldn't mind Anxiety if it didn't show in my face and if I didn't have panic attacks
Aryana
well yea the symptoms can be very distressing because as i said before it will stop you from participating in things like social interactions
Callum
Anxiety isn't just caused by social interactions
Elise
Yeah it will, I do online school now because of it..
Aryana
Good day to everyone
Ayomide
ah really, that is very drastic. definitely seek a professional when you can
Callum
good day David
Callum
Thank you
Aryana
It will be hard
Elise
I know its gonna be rough but I'm over it, I'm ready to start living my life again
Aryana
Good thinking
Elise
for sure thats the right attitude Aryana!
Callum
Thank you all very much
Aryana
best of luck
Callum
I think everyone feels Anxiety but degree variates.And when it is out of control person suffers psychologically n physically too.Then symptoms can be observed.To come out or deal with it.One can consult professional help if required or can start with small steps.Like to remember ones strengths etc.
anuradha
may be because of their living standards and surroundings.If they have already experienced they will not show fast anxiety
Anis
perception..... no?
juan
I think....so
Anis
That is personal belief.
Elise
no.
juan
It depends on how someone sees anxiety.
Elise
depression &substance use
Shawnasie
it has a co acerance in both up to 60%
Shawnasie
Diagnosed anxiety along with depression are apart of post traumatic stress disorder previously known as shell shock... now "shock" often comes on instantly, hence the name. A natural reaction to a specific chemical imbalance, Like when people are extremely happy, sad or sometimes even angry they cry
Luci
how can we treat multiple personal disorder
dilpu Reply
We must have to take help of a counselor or therapist.We can treat but upto some points only
Anis
The best we can do is support them. The rest is up to the counselor.
shri
have you ever read the biology of belief?
juan
***youtu.be/82ShSNuru6c
juan
Best thing is to be there for the person and make sure you show support but really only a professional can do much more to help.
Elise
Bruce Lipton seems quite brilliant
juan
I believe all you need is a shift in perception....
juan
we have to know & work first on root reason from where all these started
Anis
perception
juan
you were not born with the diagnosis; just a perception phenomena
juan
classical conditioning
Its Reply
what is psychology
Sohdip Reply
the science of psychic
Horia
It is a scientific study of human mind and behavior. Encompasses a lot of domains.
Simran
the study of the human mind and the way soceity effects it.
Doctor
thanks
Sohdip
psychology is dealing with society and the mind and everyday living
Gloria
dealing with mind, behaviour and thought of humans
Anis
It is understanding your mind and others mind and the chance of behaviour accordingly.
vidhyalakshmi
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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