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Most economies in the real world are mixed; they combine elements of command and market (and even traditional) systems. The U.S. economy is positioned toward the market-oriented end of the spectrum. Many countries in Europe and Latin America, while primarily market-oriented, have a greater degree of government involvement in economic decisions than does the U.S. economy. China and Russia, while they are closer to having a market-oriented system now than several decades ago, remain closer to the command economy end of the spectrum. A rich resource of information about countries and their economies can be found on the Heritage Foundation’s website, as the following Clear It Up feature discusses.

What countries are considered economically free?

Who is in control of economic decisions? Are people free to do what they want and to work where they want? Are businesses free to produce when they want and what they choose, and to hire and fire as they wish? Are banks free to choose who will receive loans? Or does the government control these kinds of choices? Each year, researchers at the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal look at 50 different categories of economic freedom for countries around the world. They give each nation a score based on the extent of economic freedom in each category.

The 2015 Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom report ranked 178 countries around the world: some examples of the most free and the least free countries are listed in [link] . Several countries were not ranked because of extreme instability that made judgments about economic freedom impossible. These countries include Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Somalia.

The assigned rankings are inevitably based on estimates, yet even these rough measures can be useful for discerning trends. In 2015, 101 of the 178 included countries shifted toward greater economic freedom, although 77 of the countries shifted toward less economic freedom. In recent decades, the overall trend has been a higher level of economic freedom around the world .

(Source: The Heritage Foundation, 2015 Index of Economic Freedom, Country Rankings, http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking)
Economic freedoms, 2015
Most Economic Freedom Least Economic Freedom
1. Hong Kong 167. Timor-Leste
2. Singapore 168. Democratic Republic of Congo
3. New Zealand 169. Argentina
4. Australia 170. Republic of Congo
5. Switzerland 171. Iran
6. Canada 172. Turkmenistan
7. Chile 173. Equatorial Guinea
8. Estonia 174. Eritrea
9. Ireland 175. Zimbabwe
10. Mauritius 176. Venezuela
11. Denmark 177. Cuba
12. United States 178. North Korea

Regulations: the rules of the game

Markets and government regulations are always entangled. There is no such thing as an absolutely free market. Regulations always define the “rules of the game” in the economy. Economies that are primarily market-oriented have fewer regulations—ideally just enough to maintain an even playing field for participants. At a minimum, these laws govern matters like safeguarding private property against theft, protecting people from violence, enforcing legal contracts, preventing fraud, and collecting taxes. Conversely, even the most command-oriented economies operate using markets. How else would buying and selling occur? But the decisions of what will be produced and what prices will be charged are heavily regulated. Heavily regulated economies often have underground economies , which are markets where the buyers and sellers make transactions without the government’s approval.

Questions & Answers

what is demand
Prince Reply
what is market mechanism
thammy Reply
how do you find the marginal line given the input and output?
Greatson Reply
population density
Thompson Reply
what is monopoly
Thompson
what is elasticity of demand?
tunde Reply
Elasticity is a central concept in economic , and is applied in many situations. Elasticity can provide important information about the strength or weakness of such relationship. Elasticity refers to the responsiveness of one economic variable such as quantity demanded, to change in another variable
Lena
such as price. #Price elasticity of demand:which measure the responsiveness of the quantity demanded to a change in price. #cross elasticity of demand:which measure the responsiveness of quantity demanded of one good to a change in the price of another good.
Lena
what are variables
Lekan Reply
marginal cost
Seyi Reply
division of labour
Abdulmumeen Reply
explain Qd=601/3p
mahmud Reply
what is unemployment
Ernest Reply
what is the formula for average revenues
EMMANUEL Reply
please 7 implications of Lionel Robbins definition of economics
Amaka Reply
Problem of economics to the society
Gmzaeeyan Reply
Within 1 or 2 percentage points, what has the U.S. inflation rate been during the last 20 years? Draw a graph to show the data.
Daphne Reply
law of demand is explaining why the demand curve is downward sloping
Tan Reply
the graph would be x axis is quantity and y axis is price, as the price is expensive, there would be less demand therefore less quantity anf vice versa, thats why demand curve is downward sloping
Tan
and*
Tan

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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