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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 1701 to 1800

Northeast africa

Ethiopia, a land of priests and monasteries, was the only Christian state in this area. It had an emperor without power as the country was - rent by rivalries among the provincial warlords and was subjected to repeated attacks by Galla nomads from the south. Actually, the latter, along with Amhara warlords, wielded the real power. In 1855 an ex-bandit, Ras Kassa, seized power making himself Emperor Theodorus and soon became a tyrant. In 1864 he imprisoned three members of a British mission and they were rescued only three years later by a British military expedition coming in from the Red Sea. Theodorus killed himself and civil war followed. A powerful, local leader, Menelik, supported by Italy finally won out, becoming Menelik II. He soon broke with Italy, however, and captured some 3,000 Italians in a battle at Aduwa in 1896. He did build railways and schools and a new capital at Addis Ababa. (Ref. 68 , 175 , 83 )

The horn of Africa came under the control of the Sultan of Oman and Zanzibar in the 1820s. Throughout most of the century the Sudan was controlled by British-Egyptian administrations, but there were many changes from decade to decade. Some of these are discussed in the paragraphs about Egypt, to follow. In 1885 Major General Charles George "Chinese" Gordon was killed in Khartoum by Mahdi followers, ending Egyptian suzerainty. The religious leader Mahdi then established the f irst Sudanese government in Omdurman. Some 13 years later, however, Lord Kitchener defeated the Sudanese forces (1898) and started the era of the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, which ruled Sudan for over 50 years. Just at the end of the century a highly developed Zandes military empire of the Congo basin swept up into the Sudan, under King Gbudwe, but were repulsed. (Ref. 254 )

Napoleon Bonaparte had penetrated Egypt in 1798, but the British navy helped the Turks to drive the French out in 1801, allowing Muhammad (also Mehemet) Ali, an Albanian Turk with Albanian soldiers, to invade. In 1803 the Ottoman Sultan appointed him Pasha (viceroy) of Egypt. There was still a Mamluk garrison present, but in 1811 Muhammad massacred every man in it and emerged as absolute ruler of the country. He then Europeanized the army, reformed the administration and built up the commercial economy, employing many Europeans, especially Frenchmen. The cultivation of cotton helped to awaken the somewhat somnolent Islam and Ali was able to extend his control to Sennar, Arabia, Sudan, Crete and Greece (1825-28) Europeans were considerably upset about all this and a combined British, French and Russian naval force took Greece away from Ali, ensuring the success of a Greek revolution, which had been in progress. Later the Europeans made Ali relinquish a portion of Syria that he had annexed and forced him to settle for hereditary rule over Egypt and the Sudan, only. As a side light of this Near Eastern crisis of 1839-41, a British squadron compelled the French Navy to withdraw support from Ali and this stimulated the French admiralty to find new technological means to challenge the British at sea. In turn, this resulted in the development of steam-powered ships of war. (Ref. 279 )

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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