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Rewrite the equation r = sec θ tan θ in rectangular coordinates and identify its graph.

y = x 2 , which is the equation of a parabola opening upward.

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We have now seen several examples of drawing graphs of curves defined by polar equations . A summary of some common curves is given in the tables below. In each equation, a and b are arbitrary constants.

This table has three columns and 3 rows. The first row is a header row and is given from left to right as name, equation, and example. The second row is Line passing through the pole with slope tan K; θ = K; and a picture of a straight line on the polar coordinate plane with θ = π/3. The third row is Circle; r = a cosθ + b sinθ; and a picture of a circle on the polar coordinate plane with equation r = 2 cos(t) – 3 sin(t): the circle touches the origin but has center in the third quadrant.
This table has three columns and 3 rows. The first row is Spiral; r = a + bθ; and a picture of a spiral starting at the origin with equation r = θ/3. The second row is Cardioid; r = a(1 + cosθ), r = a(1 – cosθ), r = a(1 + sinθ), r = a(1 – sinθ); and a picture of a cardioid with equation r = 3(1 + cosθ): the cardioid looks like a heart turned on its side with a rounded bottom instead of a pointed one. The third row is Limaçon; r = a cosθ + b, r = a sinθ + b; and a picture of a limaçon with equation r = 2 + 4 sinθ: the figure looks like a deformed circle with a loop inside of it. The seventh row is Rose; r = a cos(bθ), r = a sin(bθ); and a picture of a rose with equation r = 3 sin(2θ): the rose looks like a flower with four petals, one petal in each quadrant, each with length 3 and reaching to the origin between each petal.

A cardioid    is a special case of a limaçon    (pronounced “lee-mah-son”), in which a = b or a = b . The rose    is a very interesting curve. Notice that the graph of r = 3 sin 2 θ has four petals. However, the graph of r = 3 sin 3 θ has three petals as shown.

A rose with three petals, one in the first quadrant, another in the second quadrant, and the third in both the third and fourth quadrants, each with length 3. Each petal starts and ends at the origin.
Graph of r = 3 sin 3 θ .

If the coefficient of θ is even, the graph has twice as many petals as the coefficient. If the coefficient of θ is odd, then the number of petals equals the coefficient. You are encouraged to explore why this happens. Even more interesting graphs emerge when the coefficient of θ is not an integer. For example, if it is rational, then the curve is closed; that is, it eventually ends where it started ( [link] (a)). However, if the coefficient is irrational, then the curve never closes ( [link] (b)). Although it may appear that the curve is closed, a closer examination reveals that the petals just above the positive x axis are slightly thicker. This is because the petal does not quite match up with the starting point.

This figure has two figures. The first is a rose with so many overlapping petals that there are a few patterns that develop, starting with a sharp 10 pointed star in the center and moving out to an increasingly rounded set of petals. The second figure is a rose with even more overlapping petals, so many so that it is impossible to tell what is happening in the center, but on the outer edges are a number of sharply rounded petals.
Polar rose graphs of functions with (a) rational coefficient and (b) irrational coefficient. Note that the rose in part (b) would actually fill the entire circle if plotted in full.

Since the curve defined by the graph of r = 3 sin ( π θ ) never closes, the curve depicted in [link] (b) is only a partial depiction. In fact, this is an example of a space-filling curve    . A space-filling curve is one that in fact occupies a two-dimensional subset of the real plane. In this case the curve occupies the circle of radius 3 centered at the origin.

Chapter opener: describing a spiral

Recall the chambered nautilus introduced in the chapter opener. This creature displays a spiral when half the outer shell is cut away. It is possible to describe a spiral using rectangular coordinates. [link] shows a spiral in rectangular coordinates. How can we describe this curve mathematically?

A spiral starting at the origin and continually increasing its radius to a point P(x, y).
How can we describe a spiral graph mathematically?

As the point P travels around the spiral in a counterclockwise direction, its distance d from the origin increases. Assume that the distance d is a constant multiple k of the angle θ that the line segment OP makes with the positive x -axis. Therefore d ( P , O ) = k θ , where O is the origin. Now use the distance formula and some trigonometry:

d ( P , O ) = k θ ( x 0 ) 2 + ( y 0 ) 2 = k arctan ( y x ) x 2 + y 2 = k arctan ( y x ) arctan ( y x ) = x 2 + y 2 k y = x tan ( x 2 + y 2 k ) .

Although this equation describes the spiral, it is not possible to solve it directly for either x or y . However, if we use polar coordinates, the equation becomes much simpler. In particular, d ( P , O ) = r , and θ is the second coordinate. Therefore the equation for the spiral becomes r = k θ . Note that when θ = 0 we also have r = 0 , so the spiral emanates from the origin. We can remove this restriction by adding a constant to the equation. Then the equation for the spiral becomes r = a + k θ for arbitrary constants a and k . This is referred to as an Archimedean spiral , after the Greek mathematician Archimedes.

Another type of spiral is the logarithmic spiral, described by the function r = a · b θ . A graph of the function r = 1.2 ( 1.25 θ ) is given in [link] . This spiral describes the shell shape of the chambered nautilus.

This figure has two figures. The first is a shell with many chambers that increase in size from the center out. The second is a spiral with equation r = 1.2(1.25θ).
A logarithmic spiral is similar to the shape of the chambered nautilus shell. (credit: modification of work by Jitze Couperus, Flickr)
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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
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ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11966/1.2
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