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The NCPEA Handbook of Doctoral Programs in Educational Leadership: Issues and Challenges, Chapter 4, authored by Beverly Irby and Frederick Lunenburg.

While most professors and higher education administrators have responded favorably to accreditation processes, they agree that the process has some negative connotations such as: (a) the amount of time needed to maintain accreditation and prepare for and conduct self-studies, (b) curricular changes, (c) the many labor-intensive tasks related to accreditation, and (d) expenses incurred (Schmidt, 1999). Despite these negative issues, most recently, accreditation may have become more critical as the discipline of educational leadership/administration has been faced with public attacks about preparation programs at both the doctoral and masters levels. At issue has also been the challenge for scholars to straddle a crevasse regarding the purpose and intent of doctoral programs.

Participation and completion of a doctoral program is not only a valuable experience, but the degree is almost necessary in today’s society for professional advancement within schools and certainly in order to obtain a position in the professoriate. Stakeholders of such doctoral programs, including students, state higher education coordinating boards, school boards, public school administrators, and university faculty demand quality based on a set of standards. Therefore, some type of standards-based accreditation process is undisputable for doctoral programs since students must be assured that the program from which they will receive their degree, whether it is a PhD or an EdD, traditional or distance education, or a combination of the two, is one of quality and meets a set of established standards.

In this chapter we (a) review some of the main concerns about leadership preparation programs recently expressed by critic, Arthur Levine, and some points from the rebuttal produced by the University Council for Educational Administration, Division A and the Special Interest Group, Teaching in Educational Administration, from the American Educational Research Association, and the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration, (b) present the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards and relate them to recent debates about types and purposes of doctoral programs in general, and (c) make recommendations for a profession-based accrediting process of doctoral programs in educational leadership or administration.

Critique and Response: Educational Leadership Preparation Programs

Nearly two years ago Levine (2005) presented his stirring report, Educating School Leaders, and raised a hearty response from the leading organizations in educational administration representing a large constituency of researchers and scholars from a variety of institutions of higher education (Young, Crow, Orr, Ogawa,&Creighton, 2005). Of first import, Young and colleagues pointed out severe methodological flaws in Levine’s research which would draw questions as to the relevance and applicability of his report at all. We, too, suggest that this tends to make Levine’s heralded report only reverberations without solid arguments.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The handbook of doctoral programs: issues and challenges. OpenStax CNX. Dec 10, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10427/1.3
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