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Contextual factors

The concept of incorporation has been defined as the process through which immigrants are channeled into specific positions within the economic stratification system of a host society (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 83). According to this concept, where individuals end up in this stratification system does not depend on their level of acculturation or assimilation per se , but on their levels of human capital, pertinent government policies, the positive or discriminatory nature of the labor market at the time, and the extent to which existing ethnic communities in the U.S. have been able to receive and support the more recent immigrants. For a long time, inadequate models emphasizing the individual characteristics of immigrants were utilized in an attempt to explain their ability to find a niche in the economic structure of the United States. The contextual model proposed by Portes and Rumbaut, however, aims at overcoming the deficiencies of those individual models.

Portes and Rumbaut (1996) suggested that the political environment and the nature of the receiving ethnic community can easily nullify the potential effects of high or low human capital. The experiences of the 1980 Cuban Mariel immigrants clearly illustrate this point. Most members of this second wave of Cuban migration, who were poor and inexperienced in capitalism, were hired in Florida by well connected and successful Cuban entrepreneurs. Six years after their arrival into the U.S., approximately 20% of the new immigrants who had received support from the already existing Cuban network, had become self-employed (Portes&Rumbaut, 1996, p. 91). Their experience shows that the U.S. policy of granting immediate political asylum to Cuban immigrants and providing them with special programs to help them resettle combined with the support received from the Cuban-American community, contributed more to the success of the new immigrants than their level of acculturation or human capital. Hispanic immigrants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean have not been equally successful because their contexts of incorporation have not been the same. Many Hispanic immigrants have become incorporated into the U.S. economy and have progressed socially and economically in spite of their low levels of acculturation and obviously without having been assimilated.

A new theory

Consistent with Portes and Rumbaut’s theory, I propose a theory related to the socio-economic development of Hispanics that includes individual, group and contextual factors. Such a model calls for managing the interactions between human capital, social policy-making, the labor market, and the role of ethnic communities in the United States as well as individual and group factors affecting inclusion. Such factors include: their time of arrival into the country, whether the particular group came to U.S. voluntarily or involuntarily, the degree of cultural similarity between the incoming and the dominant group, the racial characteristics (phenotypes) of the immigrant group, the desire of the group to become assimilated, the desire of the dominant group to accept the members of the incoming group, as equals, the size of the incoming group, and the degree of unity within the immigrant group or groups. According to the new proposed theory, all of these factors will be predictors of incorporation and of their socio-economic development.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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