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"This module was developed as part of a Rice University Class called " Nanotechnology: Content and Context " initially funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EEC-0407237. It was conceived, researched, written and edited by students in the Fall 2005 version of the class, and reviewed by participating professors."

Introduction

Nanotechnology is an essentially modern scientific field that is constantly evolving as commercial andacademic interest continues to increase and as new research is presented to the scientific community. The field’s simplest roots can be traced, albeit arguably, to 1959 but its primary developmentoccurred in both the eighties and the early nineties. In addition to specific scientific achievements such as the invention of theSTM, this early history is most importantly reflected in the initial vision of molecular manufacturing as it is outlined inthree important works. Overall, an understanding of development and the criticism of this vision is integral for comprehending therealities and potential of nanotechnology today.

Richard feynman: there's plenty of room at thebottom, 1959

Richard Feynman, From Wikipedia

"But I am not afraid to consider the final question as to whether, ultimately---in the great future---we can arrange theatoms the way we want; the very atoms, all the way down!" -Richard Feynman, There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom

The first time the idea of nanotechnology was introduced was in 1959, when Richard Feynman, a physicist at Caltech,gave a talk called "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom." Though he never explicitly mentioned "nanotechnology," Feynman suggested that itwill eventually be possible to precisely manipulate atoms and molecules. Moreover, in an even more radical proposition, he thoughtthat, in principle, it was possible to create "nano-scale" machines, through a cascade of billions of factories. According to thephysicist, these factories would be progressively smaller scaled versions of machine hands and tools. He proposed that these tiny"machine shops" would then eventually be able to create billions of tinier factories.[1]In these speculations, he also suggested that there are various factors, which uniquely affect the nano-scalelevel. Specifically, he suggested that as the scale got smaller and smaller, gravity would become more negligible, while both Van DerWaals attraction and surface tension would become very important. In the end, Feynman's talk has been viewed as the first academic talkthat dealt with a main tenet of nanotechnology, the direct manipulation of individual atoms (molecular manufacturing).[2]

"The revolutionary Feynman vision launched the global nanotechnology race."-Eric Drexler

Hence, long before STMs and atomic force microscopes were invented Feynman proposed these revolutionary ideasto his peers. As demonstrated in his quote (above), he chose to deal with a "final question" that wasn't fully realized till the eightiesand nineties. Ultimately then, it was during these two decades, when the term "nanotechnology" was coined and researchers, starting withEric Drexler, built up this field from the foundation that Feynman constructed in 1959. However, some such as Chris Toumey minimize theimportance of Feynman in the establishment of the intellectual groundwork for nanotechnology.[3]Instead, using evidence from its citation history, Toumey sees "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom"as a "founding myth" that served only to directly influence Drexler rather than the other important scientists, who affected the futuredevelopment of nanotechnology. Nevertheless, though the ultimate effect of Feynman's talk is debatable, it is certain that this workdirectly influenced Drexler's own research, which thus indirectly influenced nanotechnology as a whole.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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