Signals can be broadly classified as discrete-time or continuous-time, depending on whether the independent variable is integer-valued or real-valued. Signals may also be either real-valued or complex-valued. We will now consider some of the other ways we can classify signals.

Signal length: finite/infinite

This classification is just as it sounds. An
infinite-length discrete-time signal takes values for all time indices: all integer values
$n$ on the number line from
$-$∞ all the way up to
$$∞ . A
finite-length signal is defined only for a certain range of
$n$ , from some
${N}_{1}$ to
${N}_{2}$ . The signal is not defined outside of that range.

Signal periodicity

As the name suggests,
periodic signals are those that repeat themselves. Mathematically, this means that there exists some integer value
$N$ for which
$x(n+N)=x(n)$ , for all values of
$n$ . So if we define a fundamental period of this particular signal of length, like
$N=8$ , then we will see the same signal values shifted by
$8$ time indices,
by
$16$ ,
$-8$ ,
$-16$ , etc. Below is an example of a periodic signal:
So periodic signals repeat, and clearly periodic signals
are going to be, therefore, infinite in length.It's also important to remember that to be periodic in discrete-time, the period
$N$ must be an integer. If there is no such integer-valued
$N$ for which
$x(n+N)=x(n)$ (for all values of
$n$ ), then we classify the signal as being
aperiodic .

Converting between infinite and finite length

In different applications, the need will arise to convert a signal from infinite-length to finite-length, and vice versa. There are many ways this operation can be accomplished, but we will consider the most common.

The most straightforward way to create a finite-length signal from an infinite-length one is through the process of
windowing . A windowing operation extracts a contiguous portion of an infinite-length signal, that portion becoming the new finite-length signal. Sometimes a window will also scale the smaller portion in a particular way. Below is a mathematical expression of windowing (without any scaling):

Below is a signal
$x(n)$ (assume it is infinite-length, with only a part of it shown), with a portion of it extracted to create
$y(n)$ :

There are two ways a signal can be converted from a finite-length to infinite-length. The first is referred to as
zero-padding . It is easy to take a finite-length signal and then make a larger finite-length signal out of it: just extend the time axis. We have to decide what values to put in the new time locations, and simply putting
$0$ at all the new locations is a common approach. Here is how it looks, mathematically, to create a longer signal
$y(n)$ from a shorter signal
$x(n)$ defined only on
${N}_{1}\le n\le {N}_{2}$ :

Here, obviously
${N}_{0}< {N}_{1}< {N}_{2}< {N}_{3}$ , and if we extend
${N}_{0}$ and
${N}_{3}$ to negative and positive infinity, respectively, then
$y(n)$ will end up being infinite-length.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?

Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.

In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field .
1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc
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Azam

anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world

Prasenjit

after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change .
maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments

Azam

name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world

Prasenjit

how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?

Damian

silver nanoparticles could handle the job?

Damian

not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials

Azam

Hello

Uday

I'm interested in Nanotube

Uday

this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15

Prasenjit

can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world

At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.