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Appendix III describes the next generation technologies being developed as Optical Lithography reaches its resolvable limit of minimum feature size of 30nm.

Appendix III

Five Alternatives of Next Generation Lithography

[“ Next Generation Lithography” by Eric J. Lerner, June 1999,American Institute of Physics,pp 18 to 21.]

In four decades following the invention of IC chip, speed has doubled every 3 years and smallest feature size has scaled down by 2 every 6 years in accordance with Moore’s Law. This accounts for half the increase in Instruction per second executed by a given Computer of a given technology. The other half of the increase in IPS(instruction per second) has come about by the improvement in the architecture of microprocessor chip. Von Neumann sequential architecture has evolved into parallel architecture such as pipelining, systolic and data flow architecture. This has enabled to carry out complex instruction in reduced number of machine cycles. With the downward scaling of the devices, the clock speed has increased and simultaneously the number of machine cycles utilized to carry out an instruction has decreased. Both these factors increase the computational speed of a given computer of a given technology.

As devices have been scaled down, the line width has decreased. This has required that the wavelength of the light used in the photo-lithography is correspondingly decreased according to the formula:

W = minimum feature size=(according to Rayleigh Equation)=k.λ/(NA)

where NA(numerical aperture)=n.Sin(α) = d/(2f);

n= index of refraction of the medium surrounding the lens and α = acceptance angle of the lens system;

d= aperture diameter and f = focal length.

k= resolution factor.

Lithography underlies the entire I.C. technology. I.C chips are created by alternatively etching the oxide layer and creating a window pattern, through the window pattern carrying out the diffusion of dopents or implanting the dopents. Etching out a window pattern involves a pattern of photo resist imprinted on the chip through Photo Lithography Technique. The photo-lithography involves masks. Masks consist of chromium lines laid on quartz substrate. They are generated by computer controlled electron beams which lay down the pattern of chromium lines. The masks are 4 times larger and wider than the circuit pattern actually required. By optical projection the mask pattern is reduced 4 times to the correct size. This enables the mask generation more accurate and technically viable. In the mask the minimum feature size is 4 times the actual size.

Below 30nm we have to go for Next Generation Lithography. The five alternatives are:

  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography;
  2. X-Ray Proximity Lithography;
  3. Projection Electron Beam Technology;
  4. Ion Projection Lithography;
  5. Improved Optical Lithography.
  1. Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography(EUV lithography):

The equipment set-up has been described in Part 3 of the main text in Figure 3 . The description of the setup is as follows:

Laser produced plasma

↓ radiation

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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