# 1.10 Sampling and data: using spreadsheets to view and summarize  (Page 4/6)

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Another function that we will use to perform relative frequency and cumulative relative frequency is the absolute cell function . If I wanted to find the percentage of students who arrived on campus by car, I would need to take the sum of students who took the survey and drove a car then divide that number by the total number of students who took the survey. I would need to use the same process to find the relative frequency of students who took the bus, rode their bike, or walked to campus. Rather than enter that formula 4 times you will be able to copy and paste this formula from row to row if you use the absolute cell function. To create a cell that will never change even if you copy and paste a cell to a different column or row you will need to add a “\$” dollar sign in front of the column and row signature. For instance if you want to keep cell h2 constant even if the formula is copied and pasted to a new row or column, you would need to write that cells name as \$h\$2, We will see an application of this as we work with relative frequency. When one copies a formula from one cell to another without the absolute cell function “\$” the dollar sign, the formula is relative and the cell reference will change. Copy the cell that you used to enter =h2+h5 into a new row in the same column (if you entered it into K2, copy and paste it into cell K4. What happens? The value is not the same. Look at the formula bar and it will indicate that the new reference was +h4+h7. Why did that happen? The reference was relative and you kept the same column but moved down two rows the rows in the formula also changed by two. Now, put an absolute function sign “\$” the dollar sign in front of the cell reference. Enter =\$h\$2+\$h\$5 in a cell. Then copy and paste this function to any other cell in a different row or column and you will see that the reference is absolute. It does not change.

## Optional classroom exercise:

At your computer, try this exercise: (1) Download the file, Statistics First Day of Class Survey; (2) Save the file to your desktop and one other cloud or personal recording device (jump drive, email) Be sure to name this file as indicated above (name of project with your full name); (3) open the file in Google Spreadsheet and create sheet labels; (4) save file and open in Excel; (change at least one row or column by wrapping text, right justifying) (5) Clean the data file so that each column has only categorical information or measurement data with all the same units of measurement and any label (other than in the column headings) removed. (6) Enter a formula into a cell with a relative reference and then with an absolute reference. Copy and paste the two formulas into other columns or rows. What happens? (7) save the file again and post in the appropriate Moodle assignment.

## Summarizing Data :

Categorical and measurement data are summarized differently as indicated in the text. Both categorical and measurement data can be summarized by frequency distributions but when we use charts and graphs to display data we will look at the difference between displaying categorical data using pie charts and bar graphs while we will use vertical or horizontal histograms, box plots, or stem and leaf graphs to display measurement data. In this chapter we will only address frequency distributions and the display of categorical data. In the next chapter you will learn how to display measurement data. For the following examples we will use data from the Statistics First Day of Class Survey using only sample data from How did you arrive on campus today? And The number of college credit hours you have completed to date.

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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