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With the advent of nanotechnology, these transistors are becoming even faster and more powerful, and inaccordance with the law of accelerating returns, the industry has been producing smaller transistors at lower costs with each andevery passing year. As these semiconductors become smaller and smaller, they are quickly and surely pushing towards the limits ofthe nano-realm.

These innovations, however, do not come without their fair share of challenges. Physical issues that arenot problematic at the micron scale arise at the nano-scale due to the emergence of quantum effects, and in much the same way thatoptical microscopy cannot be utilized at the nano-scale, the semiconductor industry is fast approaching a similar diffractionlimit. Optical lithography, for instance, a process that uses theproperties of light to etch transistors onto wafers of silicon, will soon reach its limit.

At its most basic level, nanotechnology involves pushing individual atoms together one by one. Sinceapproximately 1.7 billion transistors are required for a single chip, this is obviously not a realistic method for mass production.Unless an alternative method for production or a solution to this problem is found, the development and manufacturing of transistorsare expected to hit a proverbial brick wall by the year 2015. This is the reason that research in nanotechnology is so important forthe world and future of semiconductors.

How are semiconductors manufactured?

Today’s semiconductors are usually composed of silicon, and they are manufactured in a procedure that combinesthe familiar with the bizarre; some steps that are involved in the process are as everyday as developing a roll of photographic filmwhile others seem as if they would be better suited to take place on a spaceship.

These semiconductors appear to the naked eye as being small and flat, but they are actually three-dimensional“sandwiches” that are ten to twenty layers thick. It can take more than two dozen steps and up to two full months to produce a singleone of these silicon sandwiches. Some of the basic and more essential steps involved in the manufacturing process of siliconchips are briefly detailed below.

First, silicon crystals are melted in a vat and purified to 99.9999% purity. The molten silicon is drawn intolong, heavy, cylindrical ingots, which are then cut into thin slices called wafersabout the thickness of a business card.

One side of each wafer must be polished absolutely smooth. This process is called chemical-mechanicalpolishing, and it involves bathing the wafers in special abrasive chemicals. After chemical-mechanical polishing, imperfectionscannot be detected on the wafers even with the aid of a laboratory microscope.

After a wafer is polished, layers of material must be stacked on top of the silicon wafer base. Insulating layersare laid down in alternation with conducting layers in a process called deposition. This is often achieved by spraying the chemicalsdirectly onto the surface of the wafer through chemical vapor deposition. Following deposition, the wafer is coated with anotherlayer of chemicals called a photoresist that is sensitive to light.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Source:  OpenStax, Pdf generation test course. OpenStax CNX. Dec 16, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10278/1.5
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