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The Judiciary : The Supreme Court and the Subordinate Courts

The Judiciary administers the law independently of the Executive and this independence is safeguardedby the Constitution.

For more information, visit: SINGOV .


General Literacy rates (15 years and over) (2002): 93.7%

Literacy in two or more languages: 56%


Singapore, a highly developed and successful free market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-freeenvironment, stable prices, and a high per capita GDP. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics andmanufacturing.

  • GDP (purchasing power parity): $109.4 billion (2003)
  • GDP – real growth rate: 1.1% (2003)
  • GDP – per capita purchasing power parity: $23,700 (2003)
  • GDP - composition by sector: (2003)
    • Agriculture: negligible
    • Industry: 32.2%
    • Services: 67.8%

Major industries: Shipping, banking, tourism, electrical&electronics, chemicals, and oil refining.

Trade (2002)
Sectors Amount S$ (billions)
Total trade 432
Total imports 208
Total exports 224

Major trading partners: US, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan


Labour force: 2,128,500

Employed persons: 2,017,400 (Males: 1,137,100; Females: 880,300)

Unemployment rate: 4.4%

Central Provident Fund : A social security savings scheme in which all employees and their employers contribute apercentage of their salary. Employees below 55 years contribute 20%while employers contribute 13%. Employees 55 years and above contribute at lower rates. In addition to providing security forold age, this fund can also be used for healthcare, home ownership and asset enhancement.

There are 3 million CPF members and their CPF balance stood at S$100.28 billion (as at 30 June 2003)

Wage policies : The National Wages Council made up of representatives from the government, employers groups&trade unions advises the government on wage policies, and issuesguidelines in line with long-term economic objectives. There are 70 registered employees' trade unions and 3 employer unions and onefederation of employee trade union, National Trade Union Congress (NTUC). NTUC works closely with the government and business sectorto look after workers' interest.


Port statistics (2002): Total no. of vessels calling at the Singapore port is 142,745

Airport statistics (up to 2002):

  • Total no. of aircraft movements: 174,820
  • Total passenger movements: 29 million

Total number of vehicles in Singapore (2002): 706,956 (of which 406,589 are cars and rental cars)

Forms of public transport : MRT, LRT, Bus, Taxi services


Forms of communications (June 2003):

  • Total no. of mobile phone users: 3,336,400 (80.1%)
  • Total no. of pager subscribers: 222,100 (5.3%)
  • Residential telephone lines: 1,915,700 (45.9%)

Total no. of Internet dial-up subscribers : 2,025,700 (48.7%)

Mass media

  • No. of local newspaper: 10 dailies with an average combined circulation of about 1.5 million (as of Oct 2001)
  • No. of foreign publications, journals&magazines: 5,500
  • No. of TV broadcasters: 2 groups (MediaCorp, SPH MediaWorks)
  • No. of radio broadcasters: 6 (MediaCorp Radio, UnionWorks, SAFRA Radio, National Arts Council, Redifussion and BBC WorldService)
  • No. of TV cable operator: 2 (Singapore Cable Vision, StarHub)
  • No. of radio channels (domestic): 18
  • No. of free terrestrial TV channels: 3
  • Cable TV subscribership: 341,907 persons of 31.83% of all cabled homes (as at 31 Oct 2002)
  • Internet dial-up penetration rate: 48.7% (as at June 2003)
  • Cable modem subscribers: 93,967 (Those who subscribed to SCV MaxOnline service to access Internet) (as of 31 Oct 2002)
  • ADSL subscribers: 108,600 (as at 31 Oct 2002)
  • No. of broadband users: 34% or 950,000 Singapore residents, 10 years or above (Survey on Broadband Usage, 2001)

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Innovate2005. OpenStax CNX. Feb 23, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10244/1.9
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