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A similar form of aggregating was also observed in salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis) gathered off the coast of Alaska, waiting for the salmon migration (Hulbert et al., 2005). The salmon sharks switched between focal foraging and foraging dispersal strategies as they hunted, but they never cooperatively hunted for salmon as a group. Thus it appears there is no affiliation between hunting strategies and size segregation in sharks; the only social factor observed were warning displays (Klimley et al., 2001).


Although sharks do not segregate into groups of cooperative hunters, it’s plausible that they might segregate themselves into groups of homogeneously sized individuals in order to protect themselves (Guttridge et al. 2009).

Since sharks aggregate due to overlapping dietary resources (Wetherbee&Cortes, 2004), it’s no surprise that pregnant leopard sharks ( Triakis semifasciata ) aggregate in Humboldt Bay, California in order to give birth in clumps of eelgrass (Ebert&Ebert, 2005). The eelgrass is abundant with fish eggs, an important food source for newborn juveniles (Ebert&Ebert, 2005). In a similar manner, bluntnose sevengill sharks ( N. cepediamus ) enter the bay to birth their young after other elasmobranches have left. Just like how the juvenile T. semifasciata feed on fish eggs in the eelgrass, newborn bluntnose sevengill sharks feed on other newborn elasmobranches, especially juvenile leopard sharks.

However, Heupel and Heuter were astonished to find, in 2002, that juvenile blacktip sharks ( Carcharhinus limbatus ), despite living in the nutrient rich nursery, aggregate in the northern end of the bay rather than in the center where the prey is densest. According to the behavioral patterns observed in other elasmobranches, the juveniles should have aggregated where the food was most abundant. Instead, for the first 6 months after birth, the juveniles concentrated themselves in the kernel, the area in the northern end of the nursery (Heupel et al, 2004). A more indepth study of juvenile blacktip sharks by Heupel and Simpfendorfer in 2005 revealed that the young C. limbatus were observed to make daily foraging trips into the midst of where prey was densest; however, instead of remaining there, they return to the northern end of the nursery. The repeated behavior indicates that there must be a direct fitness benefit involved with such behavior. The occasional larger elasmobranch in the prey-rich area of the nursery may be the source of such a behavior (Heupel&Simpfendorfer, 2005). In gathering together away from areas of high prey density and areas containing possible predators in large, they use increase their survival rate. Thus despite the fact that protective segregation only applies to juvenile elasmobranches, the behavior observed indicate that sharks do in fact gather in order to protect themselves.

A chart showing interaction time between sharks A bar graph showing shark interactions  within various population sizes.
Right As can seen from the amount of time spent with the different groups of sharks, the different ages have differential preference for those their own age and size. Left As seen with the bar graphs, the sharks preferred to spend more time with other sharks than to be solitary: the more sharks there are in one area, the more time spent with the sharks.
Both graphs are reproduced from Guttridge et al.'s (2009) data

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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