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Negaprion brevirostris, lemon shark, is unusually social for a shark. When juvenile N. brevirostris were introduced to an empty two-compartment tank, they showed no preference for either side; however, when they were introduced to a tank in which one compartment was empty and the other had another lemon shark, the juvenile N. brevirostris spent more time in the company of the other shark than in the empty compartment (Guttridge et al., 2009).

Compared to the aggregation behavior observed in ragged-tooth sharks and bull sharks, there is no factor aside from the presence of the other sharks in the laboratory setting that might cause N. brevirostris to aggregate. Unlike other sharks, such as the basking shark, who are observed to be alone most of the time, N.brevirostris have been seen swimming in groups of two or more individuals most of the time (Gruber, Nelson,&Morrissey 1988)(Sims et al. 2000).

Also, interestingly enough, unlike the display interactions Le Beouf (2004)observed between eavesdropping salmon sharks, Lamna ditropis, no reports of aggressive encounters were noted in interactions between the lemon sharks in laboratory setting (Guttridge et al., 2009).

Not only are lemons sharks more socially responsive to other lemon sharks, they also interact with many other species of marine teleosts by swimming behind an organism and mimicking its movements (Papastamatious et al., 2006). In Guttridge’s experiment in 2009, N. brevirostris was observed interacting with a pair of nurse sharks in this way. Besides nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum), other common organisms N. brevirostris have been observed to interact with are schools of jacks (Caranx) and barracudas (Sphyraena barracuda), southern stingrays (Dasyatis americana), and under special conditions, slender suckerfish (Echeneis naucrates) (Papastamatious et al., 2006).

Hunting efficiency

The size-specific grouping due to overlapping diets may not be the only reason why size segregation is practiced. Assuming that sharks do practice size segregation, this grouping behavior should increase the overall fitness of every participant (Conradt, 1998). Thus one plausible reason why sharks may benefit from forming size-specific groups may be that hunting efficiency and overall foraging success increase due to cooperative behavior between each of the members because of their similar levels of hunting experience (Guttridge et al, 2009). However, are the sharks really cooperating?

According to Klimley et al.’s observations in 2001, white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ) that gathered around a seal colony on Anõ Nuevo Island off the coast of California never interacted; sharks only approached one another after eavesdropping on a kill made by another shark (Le Beouf, 2004). Any attempts to steal food resulted in threatening displays of tail slaps and breaching – jumping out of the water – by the one who made the kill (Klimley et al ., 2001). These white sharks appear to have gathered in groups of similar size solely because of their shared prey: the seals (Le Beouf, 2004).

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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