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Find two different sets of parametric equations to represent the graph of y = x 2 + 2 x .

One possibility is x ( t ) = t , y ( t ) = t 2 + 2 t . Another possibility is x ( t ) = 2 t 3 , y ( t ) = ( 2 t 3 ) 2 + 2 ( 2 t 3 ) = 4 t 2 8 t + 3 .

There are, in fact, an infinite number of possibilities.

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Cycloids and other parametric curves

Imagine going on a bicycle ride through the country. The tires stay in contact with the road and rotate in a predictable pattern. Now suppose a very determined ant is tired after a long day and wants to get home. So he hangs onto the side of the tire and gets a free ride. The path that this ant travels down a straight road is called a cycloid    ( [link] ). A cycloid generated by a circle (or bicycle wheel) of radius a is given by the parametric equations

x ( t ) = a ( t sin t ) , y ( t ) = a ( 1 cos t ) .

To see why this is true, consider the path that the center of the wheel takes. The center moves along the x -axis at a constant height equal to the radius of the wheel. If the radius is a , then the coordinates of the center can be given by the equations

x ( t ) = a t , y ( t ) = a

for any value of t . Next, consider the ant, which rotates around the center along a circular path. If the bicycle is moving from left to right then the wheels are rotating in a clockwise direction. A possible parameterization of the circular motion of the ant (relative to the center of the wheel) is given by

x ( t ) = a sin t , y ( t ) = a cos t .

(The negative sign is needed to reverse the orientation of the curve. If the negative sign were not there, we would have to imagine the wheel rotating counterclockwise.) Adding these equations together gives the equations for the cycloid.

x ( t ) = a ( t sin t ) , y ( t ) = a ( 1 cos t ) .
A series of circles with center marked and a point on the circle drawing out a curve as if the circle was rolling along a plane. The shape made seems to be half an ellipse with height the diameter of the original circle and with major axis the circumference of the circle.
A wheel traveling along a road without slipping; the point on the edge of the wheel traces out a cycloid.

Now suppose that the bicycle wheel doesn’t travel along a straight road but instead moves along the inside of a larger wheel, as in [link] . In this graph, the green circle is traveling around the blue circle in a counterclockwise direction. A point on the edge of the green circle traces out the red graph, which is called a hypocycloid .

Two circles are drawn both with center at the origin and with radii 3 and 4, respectively; the circle with radius 3 has an arrow pointing in the counterclockwise direction. There is a third circle drawn with center on the circle with radius 3 and touching the circle with radius 4 at one point. That is, this third circle has radius 1. A point is drawn on this third circle, and if it were to roll along the other two circles, it would draw out a four pointed star with points at (4, 0), (0, 4), (−4, 0), and (0, −4). On the graph there are also written two equations: x(t) = 3 cos(t) + cos(3t) and y(t) = 3 sin(t) – sin(3t).
Graph of the hypocycloid described by the parametric equations shown.

The general parametric equations for a hypocycloid are

x ( t ) = ( a b ) cos t + b cos ( a b b ) t y ( t ) = ( a b ) sin t b sin ( a b b ) t .

These equations are a bit more complicated, but the derivation is somewhat similar to the equations for the cycloid. In this case we assume the radius of the larger circle is a and the radius of the smaller circle is b. Then the center of the wheel travels along a circle of radius a b . This fact explains the first term in each equation above. The period of the second trigonometric function in both x ( t ) and y ( t ) is equal to 2 π b a b .

The ratio a b is related to the number of cusps on the graph (cusps are the corners or pointed ends of the graph), as illustrated in [link] . This ratio can lead to some very interesting graphs, depending on whether or not the ratio is rational. [link] corresponds to a = 4 and b = 1 . The result is a hypocycloid with four cusps. [link] shows some other possibilities. The last two hypocycloids have irrational values for a b . In these cases the hypocycloids have an infinite number of cusps, so they never return to their starting point. These are examples of what are known as space-filling curves .

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
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Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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Asali
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Asali
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Cied
types of nano material
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
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Prasenjit
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Damian
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Damian
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Azam
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11966/1.2
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