<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

While Richard Nixon appointed a White House Task Force on Science Policy within a few months of his inauguration in January 1969,he apparently gave little credence to its recommendation to strengthen PSAC and OST. Like Johnson, Nixon preferred applied to basic research, and his scienceand technology initiatives generally lay outside the PSAC framework. In his January 1971 State of the Union message, he announced a $100 million War onCancer program that emphasized his desire for practical results. In July, he announced a new program centered on the Domestic Council to stimulate newtechnologies. And in March 1972, he transmitted a special message to the Congress urging renewed emphasis on science and technology, but primarily fortargeted programs outside of academia.

Nixon appointed eighteen new PSAC members, excluding his two science advisors. Cal Tech President Lee DuBridge, who had been amongthe leading scientists engaged in defense-related research during World War II and was SAC/ODM chairman under Truman and Eisenhower, was sworn in as Nixon’sscience advisor on inauguration day. Immediately, he became actively engaged “inproblems important to the president: environmental quality, including a major oil spill in California, for which Nixon very publicly made a show of givingDuBridge responsibility for reviewing the situation and recommending corrective actions.” William G. Wells, Jr., “Science Advice and the Presidency: a View from Roosevelt to Ford,” in William T. Golden (ed.), Science Advice to the President (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), 209. But DuBridge also was known to have been openly opposed to the SST and was further tainted in Nixon’s eyes by his imageas a dyed-in-the-wool member of the academic community, which along with PSAC came to be regarded by the White House as a special-interest lobby. So DuBridgewas forced to resign after two years, to be replaced by Edward David, an engineer from Bell Laboratories—the first nonacademic nonscientist to beappointed presidential science advisor. Nixon reinforced the message about his science agenda at David’s swearing-in ceremony, when he described his newadvisor as “a very practical man.”

In the Rose Garden following the searing in of Edward David, Jr., as President Nixon’s second science advisor, Sept. 14, 1970. Left to right:David, President Nixon, Ann David, Nancy David, and Lee DuBridge. Individuals in the second row are members of the President’s Science Advisory Committee. Thename of the judge who swore in David is not known. Courtesy of Edward E. David, Jr.

The gradual diminution of the science advisory system was accelerated after the November 1972 elections, when the president abolishedboth the PSAC and the OST.

In some respects—aside from its being at political odds with presidents Johnson and Nixon—PSAC’s demise can be attributed to theoverall growth of science and science policy-making throughout the federal bureaucracy. As science and technology policy capabilities in the DoD and othercabinet departments and agencies increased (thanks in part to recommendations of PSAC itself), Johnson and Nixon had many more sources of advice, particularlywith regard to national defense. By the time IBM physicist Richard Garwin—the most outspoken critic of presidential science policies—took the PSAC helm in1969 (after having previously served from 1962-1965), PSAC was already on the political outs with Nixon and all but dead. In January 1973, Nixon accepted theresignations of the last of the committee members and appointed NSF Director H. Guyford Stever his science advisor. Stever often joked about his second job.When asked whether he ever saw the president, he responded, in essence: “Certainly! I see him twice a day. Once in the morning when he walks in front ofmy window from his living quarters to the Oval Office, and once in the evening when he returns.” By then, it was abundantly clear to the scientificestablishment that there no longer was a good working relationship between academic science and the White House.

The abolition of PSAC and OST inspired further congressional science-policy initiatives. These activities intensified with theascension of Gerald Ford to the presidency after Nixon’s resignation. Ford was more than willing to work closely with his former colleges, and was alsoperceived as being friendly toward science.

The House Science and Technology Committee was now the only science-policy game in town. The scientific establishment began lookingto it to restore its special access to the president. Other groups, both scientific and non-scientific, looked to it to further their own interests andto confirm their beliefs in how relationships between science and government ought to be structured. Thus began a series of maneuvers and hearings in bothhouses of Congress that culminated three years later with the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976, the first andonly official statement of a comprehensive national science policy ever enacted by the United States Government.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?